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BIO 210

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

enzyme

specialized protein catalyst that speed up chemical reactions

electrolytes

minerals that carry electrical charges that help maintain the body's fluid balance

acid

substances that release hydrogen ions (protons) in water. proton donors

base

a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water, protons acceptors

glycogen

storage form of glucose in animals

starch

storage form of glucose in plants

plasma membrane

thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings

nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

proteins

nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues: amino acids are building blocks

carbohydrates

main source of energy for the body (ratio 1:2:1)

lipids

biochemicals that do not dissolve in water (fats, oils, and waxes) make up cell membranes, store energy

nucleic acids

very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
DNA and RNA

cytosol

The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.

nucleoli

dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus; site of ribosome production.

cytoskeleton

network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement

transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

translation

(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

tonicity

The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water

hemolysis

the destruction of red blood cells

interphase

cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases

mitosis

cell division/ the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm during cell division

apoptosis

programmed cell death

pH

a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is,
scale ranges from 0 to 14

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