DNA is_____stranded and RNA is primarily ____stranded
what are the three main properties of carbon that are important in forming organic molecules
1. carbon bonds are stable across a broad range of temperatures.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms.
3 carbon can form both polar and nonpolar bonds
2. metabolic enzymes
4. nucleic acid
what are molecules that have identical molecular formulas but different structures called?
what are lipids
lipids are hydrophobic molecules composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon.
The ______,____and______structtural levels of a protein describe a protein with a single polypeptide chain.
what bonding properties of carbon allow for the creation of groups of atoms with distinct shapes and functions?
1.carbon containing molecules can form isomer.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds.
3. carbon can create double and triple bonds.
rank the following polysaccharides of glucose in order od most branched form to least branches form.
1.the linear sequence of amino acids
2. two or more interacting polypeptides
3. repetitive folding patterns such as a helix and B pleated sheet
4. the three- dimensional structure of a polypeptide
how many polypeptides are involved in the quaternary structure of a protein
at least two polypeptides
____bridges can form between the side chains of two cysteine amino acids.
what are the structural components of a polypeptide
what is an alpha helix?
The repeating helical structure that is formed by a polypeptide backbone
carbon can form four bonds because it has only _______electrons in the outer energy____
what four bases are found in RNA?
DNA molecules contain the sugar___as part of the backbone of the molecule
what are the major classes of lipids
1. moderate branching
3. highly branched
what type of bonds is responsible for the base pairing between two strands of DNA in the double helix?
the four nitrogenous bases present in DNA are__________,___________,____,and______
which of the following describe sugar
The simplest sugar are monosaccharides
sugar contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
sugar store energy in their chemical bonds.
what are the two enantiomer of glucose
L-glucose and D-glucose
1.monounsaturated fatty acids
2. polyunsaturated fatty acids
3. saturated fatty acid
1. contain one double bonded carbon
2. liquid at room temperature
3. contain no double bonded carbons
unsaturated fat have _________melting point that saturated fats
which of the following polysaccharides contain chain of the alpha-glucose isomer?
1. energy storage
2. create a barrier to water loss
3. form hormones important in reproduction
4. plasma membrane structure
what are macromolecules
large molecules that are form by joining smaller molecules together
The ability of ____to form four covalent bonds contributes to the diversity of organic compounds that can be formed.
1. transmission of genetic information to daughter cells
2. transfer of genetic information into protein
3. store of genetic information
4. decoding genetic information
which of the following atoms form nonpolar covalent bonds with carbon
what is the difference between the N-terminus and the C-terminus of a polypeptide?
The N-terminus has a free amino group and the C-terminus has a free carboxyl group.
_____are large molecules made from smaller organic molecules.
If a protein may contain several different domains and each domain has____function
which of the following are categories of macromolecules found in cells
how are nucleotides linked together to form nucleic acids
the phosphate group of one nucleotide is covalently linked to the sugar of the second nucleotide
nitrogenous bases consist of a double or single ring of __________and ______________atoms
how are structural isomers and stereoisomers different form one another?
only stereoisomer have identical bonding relationships but different structures
only structural isomers contain the same atoms,but with different bonding relationships.
what are two examples of important functional group in organic molecules?
amino and carbonyl
a______is a compound that lowers the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
what is determined by the expression of genetic information?
what type of cell is formed(liver or muscle)
the identity of an organism (eg human or mouse)
what regions of a phospholipid bilayer face water and which face the interior of the membrane aways from water?
the polar regions face water, and the nonpolar regions face the interior.
the optimal distance between two atoms within a molecules is the van der waals
which of the following describes the relationship between condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis
dehydration synthesis is specific type of condensation reaction involving the loss of a water molecule.
condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis occur when two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule.
what occurs during hydrolysis reactions?
polymers are broken down one monomer at a time by the addition of water.
what are protein-protein interactions
when one protein binds to another, this is called a protein- protein interaction
what are the major differences between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions
dehydration reactions involve the loss of water and hydrolysis reactions involve the addition of water
dehydration reactions form polymers hydrolysis reactions break down polymers into monomers.
nucleotides are covalently linked by __bonds
what are the two major classes of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
what are the four categories of macromolecules
the sugar found in ribonucleotides of RNA is____________
isomers are formed with the same atoms but with different bonding relationships
isomers have identical bonding relationships but the atoms are positioned differently around bonds
isomers have identical bonding, but the atoms are positioned differently, resulting mirror images.
why do phospholipids arrage into bilayers
the bilayers is the most energetically favorable arrangement in aqueous solution.
the hydrophillic ends attract water while the hydrophobic ends exclude water
the building blocks of nucleic acids are monomers called
how are monomers and polymers related to one another
polymers are large macromolecules composed of many monomers linked together
_______reactions, which form polymers form simple monomers, are reversible through the process of ________________
Steroids all contain_______fused rings of carbon atoms with one or more polar __ groups attached to the ring structure
what are the major components of nitrogenous bases
single or double carbon ring
what are proteins?
proteins are polymers essential to nearly all life processes
what of the following are examples of hydrolysis reactions
A sugar is broken down into fructose and glucose molecules
A strand of DNS is broken down into individual nucleotides
two nucleotides are linked together by a ____________bond to form a string of nucleic acids