general biology chapter3 &4

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GENERAL BIOLOGY CHAPTER 3&4

_______reactions, which form polymers form simple monomers, are reversible through the process of ________________

dehydration
hydrolysis

The ______,____and______structtural levels of a protein describe a protein with a single polypeptide chain.

1.primary
2. secondary
3. tertiary

_____are large molecules made from smaller organic molecules.

Macromolecules

____bridges can form between the side chains of two cysteine amino acids.

disulfide

1 starch
2 cellulose
Glycogen

1. moderate branching
2. unbranched
3. highly branched

1. DNA
2. RNA
3. DNA
4. RNA

1. transmission of genetic information to daughter cells
2. transfer of genetic information into protein
3. store of genetic information
4. decoding genetic information

1. primary
2. quaternary
3. secondary
4.terteary

1.the linear sequence of amino acids
2. two or more interacting polypeptides
3. repetitive folding patterns such as a helix and B pleated sheet
4. the three- dimensional structure of a polypeptide

1. starch
2. metabolic enzymes
3.triglycerides
4.DNA

1.carbohydratre
2. protein
3. lipid
4. nucleic acid

1.fat
2. waxes
3. steroid
4. phospholipids

1. energy storage
2. create a barrier to water loss
3. form hormones important in reproduction
4. plasma membrane structure

1.monounsaturated fatty acids
2. polyunsaturated fatty acids
3. saturated fatty acid

1. contain one double bonded carbon
2. liquid at room temperature
3. contain no double bonded carbons

a______is a compound that lowers the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

base

The ability of ____to form four covalent bonds contributes to the diversity of organic compounds that can be formed.

carbon

the building blocks of nucleic acids are monomers called

nucleotides

carbon can form four bonds because it has only _______electrons in the outer energy____

4
shell

DNA is_____stranded and RNA is primarily ____stranded

1.double
2. single

DNA molecules contain the sugar___as part of the backbone of the molecule

deoxyribose

the four nitrogenous bases present in DNA are__________,___________,____,and______

1. adenine
2. guanine
3. thymine
4. cytosine

guanine
adenine

cytosine
thymine

how are monomers and polymers related to one another

polymers are large macromolecules composed of many monomers linked together

how are nucleotides linked together to form nucleic acids

the phosphate group of one nucleotide is covalently linked to the sugar of the second nucleotide

how are structural isomers and stereoisomers different form one another?

only stereoisomer have identical bonding relationships but different structures
only structural isomers contain the same atoms,but with different bonding relationships.

how many polypeptides are involved in the quaternary structure of a protein

at least two polypeptides

If a protein may contain several different domains and each domain has____function

different

isomers are formed with the same atoms but with different bonding relationships

structural

isomers have identical bonding relationships but the atoms are positioned differently around bonds

cis-trans isomers

isomers have identical bonding, but the atoms are positioned differently, resulting mirror images.

enantiomers

nitrogenous bases consist of a double or single ring of __________and ______________atoms

nitrogen
c atoms.

nucleotides are covalently linked by __bonds

phosphodiester

the optimal distance between two atoms within a molecules is the van der waals

radius

rank the following polysaccharides of glucose in order od most branched form to least branches form.

1. glycogen
2. starch
3. cellulose

Steroids all contain_______fused rings of carbon atoms with one or more polar __ groups attached to the ring structure

4
hydroxyl

the sugar found in ribonucleotides of RNA is____________

ribose

two nucleotides are linked together by a ____________bond to form a string of nucleic acids

phosphodiester

unsaturated fat have _________melting point that saturated fats

lower

what are lipids

lipids are hydrophobic molecules composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon.

what are macromolecules

large molecules that are form by joining smaller molecules together

what are molecules that have identical molecular formulas but different structures called?

isomers

what are protein-protein interactions

when one protein binds to another, this is called a protein- protein interaction

what are proteins?

proteins are polymers essential to nearly all life processes

what are the four categories of macromolecules

carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids

what are the major classes of lipids

waxes
fats
Steriods
phospholipids

what are the major components of nitrogenous bases

carbon
nitrogen
single or double carbon ring

what are the major differences between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions

dehydration reactions involve the loss of water and hydrolysis reactions involve the addition of water
dehydration reactions form polymers hydrolysis reactions break down polymers into monomers.

what are the structural components of a polypeptide

1.N-terminus
2.peptide backbone
3. c-terminus

what are the three main properties of carbon that are important in forming organic molecules

1. carbon bonds are stable across a broad range of temperatures.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms.
3 carbon can form both polar and nonpolar bonds

what are the two enantiomer of glucose

L-glucose and D-glucose

what are the two major classes of nucleic acids?

DNA and RNA

what are two examples of important functional group in organic molecules?

amino and carbonyl

what bonding properties of carbon allow for the creation of groups of atoms with distinct shapes and functions?

1.carbon containing molecules can form isomer.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds.
3. carbon can create double and triple bonds.

what four bases are found in RNA?

cytosine
guanine
uracil
adenine

what is an alpha helix?

The repeating helical structure that is formed by a polypeptide backbone

what is determined by the expression of genetic information?

what type of cell is formed(liver or muscle)
the identity of an organism (eg human or mouse)

what is the difference between the N-terminus and the C-terminus of a polypeptide?

The N-terminus has a free amino group and the C-terminus has a free carboxyl group.

what occurs during hydrolysis reactions?

polymers are broken down one monomer at a time by the addition of water.

what of the following are examples of hydrolysis reactions

A sugar is broken down into fructose and glucose molecules
A strand of DNS is broken down into individual nucleotides

what regions of a phospholipid bilayer face water and which face the interior of the membrane aways from water?

the polar regions face water, and the nonpolar regions face the interior.

what type of bonds is responsible for the base pairing between two strands of DNA in the double helix?

Hydrogen

which of the following are categories of macromolecules found in cells

nucleic acids
carbohydrates
proteins
lipids

which of the following atoms form nonpolar covalent bonds with carbon

hydrogen
carbon

which of the following describe sugar

The simplest sugar are monosaccharides
sugar contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
sugar store energy in their chemical bonds.

which of the following describes the relationship between condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis

dehydration synthesis is specific type of condensation reaction involving the loss of a water molecule.
condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis occur when two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule.

which of the following polysaccharides contain chain of the alpha-glucose isomer?

starch
glycogen

why do phospholipids arrage into bilayers

the bilayers is the most energetically favorable arrangement in aqueous solution.
the hydrophillic ends attract water while the hydrophobic ends exclude water

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