5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Central dogma of molecular biology
- Start codon
- RNA polymerase
- a Adenine
- b Codon at which translation is initiated; it is typically the first AUG after a ribosome-binding site.
- c Flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein
- d Enzyme that synthesizes RNA using single stranded DNA as a template; synthesis always occur in the 5' to 3' direction.
- e Guanine
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- 1) Often controlled by regulatory region near promoter ->Protein binds to region and acts as "on/off" switch -> Binding protein can act as repressor or activator -> Repressor blocks transcription and Activator facilitates transcription 2) Set of genes controlled by protein is called an operon
- 5'PO4. 1 strand of the DNA has a phosphate attached at the number 5 carbon of the sugar. -> Termed the five prime (5') end
- 1) RNA is made up of nucleotides -> Ribonucleotides 2) RNA contains nitrogenous bases -> Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil (Uracil replaces thymine in RNA) 3) RNA usually exists as single stranded molecule 4) Portion of DNA acts of template for RNA synthesis -> Either strand of DNA can act as template 5) Three different functional groups of RNA mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
- 1) Codons are groups of three nucleotides situated next to each other on DNA 2) Codons are written in terms of their base sequence in mRNA 3) The sequence of codons determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein 4) There are 64 codons that make up the "alphabet" of proteins 4.1) Of the 64 codons, 61 are sense codons -> Each coding a specific amino acid 4.2) The remaining 3 are nonsense codons -> These code for termination of the message 5) Codons contained in mRNA are read into proteins through translation -> The site of translation is the ribosome 6) Each codon has an anticodon -> The anticodon is complementary sequence to the codon
5 True/False Questions
tRNA → Messenger RNA -> type of RNA molecule that is translated during protein synthesis.
rRNA → Messenger RNA -> type of RNA molecule that is translated during protein synthesis.
Phase variation → Routine switching on and off of certain genes -> Altering expression allows portions of population to survive and multiply
Regulating the expression of genes → 1) Nucleotide sequence codes for regulation mechanism for gene expression 2) Mechanisms determine duration of synthesis of gene products -> Products are only made when required 3) Key mechanism is regulation of mRNA synthesis from DNA -> Regulation of transcription
genome → 1) Complete set of genetic information referred 2) Genome of all cells is composed of DNA ->Some viruses have RNA genome 2) Functional unit of genome is the gene 3) Gene codes for gene product -> Gene product is most commonly protein