Human Development

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chapter one

Reactive Attachment Disorder

•Pathogenic care such as maltreatment or neglect tends to occur in concert with other psychosocial risk factors such as poverty, disruption and mental illness- resulting in an increase in the risk of RAD.
•Issues must be present by age 5
-Rule out: PDD's, PTSD, MR (can be comorbid but typically mild),
-Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological care

Most obvious form of RAD is non organic failure to thrive

• Infant looks sad, joyless, down right miserable
• Some are frightened.
• Often low weight
• Muscle tone may be poor
• Skin may be cold
• Socially they are not spontaneous and have no initiative
• Typically indifferent about separation from parent or caregiver (don't confuse this from separation anxiety, they are very different disorders
• Children may not play with toys and show little interest in their environment
• Basically these kids do not form attachments
• These kids cannot form lasting relationships
• Often have a lack of guilt, because they are either in survival mode or they don't know to be guilty
• Often have the inability to follow rules
• Oddly some are overly friendly but this does not mean that they form relationships

DEVELOPMENT

The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. Includes growth and decline.Involves interplay of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes.

LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

1. Helps us prepare to take responsibility for children
2. Gives insight about our own lives.
3. Gives us knowledge about what our lives will be like as we age.

Historical perspective child development

1.Original sin: Middle Ages viewed children as being bad, born evil. Child-rearing focused on salvation.
2. Tabula rasa: John Locke. Born blank slates. Parenting focused on shaping children to be good citizens.
3. Innate goodness: Children born inherently good. Allow to develop with little monitoring or supervision.

8 Main characteristics of L-S perspective

1. Development is LIFELONG:no one age dominates dvlmt.
2. Development is MULTIDIMENSIONAL (bio, cognitive,socioemotional)
3. Development is MULTIDIRECTIONAL.some components Increase/decrease
4. Development is PLASTIC. involves degree to which characteristics change or remain stable.
5. Development is MULTIDISCIPLINARY. Mult. fields, psychologists, anthro. neuroscience, medical.
6. Development is CONTEXTUAL. Individuals respond and act on contexts. Bio,physical environment, cog processes, social, historical, and cultural contexts.
7. Development involves conflicts and competition among 3 goals of GROWTH,MAINTENANCE,REGULATION.
8. Development is a co-construction of BIOLOGY(genetics),CULTURE(social norms),INDIVIDUAL's own volition.

3 aspects of contextual characteristics

1. NORMATIVE AGE-GRADED. biological and environmental influences similar for individuals in a particular age group.
2. NORMATIVE HISTORY-GRADED. influences common to people of a particular generation because of shared historical experiences.
3. NON-NORMATIVE. life events are unusual occurrences that have a major impact on individual's life. Not applicable to many individuals.

3 key developmental processes

1. BIOLOGICAL. changes in individual's physical nature
2.COGNITIVE. changes in individual's thought, intelligence and language
3.SOCIOEMOTIONAL. changes in individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.

8 main developmental periods ,(lifespan divided into the following periods of development)

1. PRENATAL: conception to birth
2. INFANCY: birth to 18/24 mo.
3.EARLY CHILDHOOD:(preschool) Infancy to 5/6 yrs
4.MIDDLE/LATE CHILDHOOD: (elementary) 6 to 11 yrs
5.ADOLESCENCE: 10/12 to 18/22 yrs
6. EARLY ADULTHOOD: 18/22 yrs thru 30's
7. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD: 35/45 to 60's
8. LATE ADULTHOOD: 60/70's to death. Many differentiate between young old and oldest old.

4 AGES of development (Baltes)

1. CHILDHOOD and ADOLESCENCE
2. PRIME ADULTHOOD (20's thru 50's)
3. ~60 yrs to 79 yrs
4. ~80 yrs to death

3 important developmental issues

1. NATURE & NURTURE.issue focuses on the extent to which development is mainly influenced by nature(biological inheritance) or nurture (experience)
2. STABILITY & CHANGE. issue involves the extent to which development is determined by early versus later experiences.
3. CONTINUITY & DISCONTINUITY. issue focuses on extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages.

AGE dimensions conceptualized

1. CHRONOLOGICAL AGE: years since birth
2. BIOLOGICAL AGE: person's age in terms of bio health
3. PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE: individual's adaptive capacities compared to others of same chronological age.
4. SOCIAL AGE: refers to social roles and expectations related to a person's age.

THEORY

An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps explain and make predictions.

HYPOTHESIS

are specific predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

1. Conceptualize process or problem to be studied.
2. Collect research information
3. Analyze the data
4. Draw conclusions.

PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORIES (emotion and unconscious mind)

1. SIGMUND FREUD'S: id (instincts).ego(reasoning). superego(conscience), ego defense mechanisms and repression. 5 psychosexual (oral,anal,phallic,latency,genital)
2. ERIKSON'S: 8 psychosocial developmental stages represent a crisis to be resolved for healthy development to occur.

PSYCHOANALYTICAL CONTRIBUTIONS

1. early experiences play important part
2. family relationships are central aspect of development
3. personality can be better understood if looked at developmentally
4. mind contains both conscious and unconscious aspects and both need to be considered
5. Changes take place in adulthood as well as childhood. (Erikson)

PSYCHOANALYTICAL CRITICISMS

1. difficult to test scientifically
2.. date unknown accuracy based on reconstruction of childhood
3. Sexual underpinnings given too much importance
4. Unconscious mind is given too much credit for influencing behavior
5. these theories present a negative image of humans (especially Freud)
6. psychoanalytic theories are culture/gender-biased (especially Freud)

COGNITIVE THEORIES (thinking,reasoning,language)

1. PIAGET'S Theory of Cognitive Development:
2. VYGOTSKY'S Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
3.INFORMATION PROCESSING Theory

PIAGET'S Theory of Cognitive Development

1. Children actively construct their understanding of the world thru processes of ORGANIZATION and ADAPTATION.
2. To makes sense of our observations and experiences, we must organized them in some meaningful way.
3. We also adapt our thinking to include new ideas and experiences.
4.He proposed 4 STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT(each age-related and represents distinct ways of thinking.

VYTOTSKY'S SOCIOCULTURAL COGNITIVE THEORY

1. emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
2. Knowledge is SITUATED and COLLABORATIVE, which means that is is constructed thru social interactions with others--both people and cultural objects

INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY

1. Individuals develop and increasing capacity for processing information that is gradual rather than in stages.
2. The use of computer analogy describes the brain as the computer's hardware and cognition as its software and thinking as information processing.

COGNITIVE THEORY CONTRIBUTIONS

1. offer a positive view of development
2. emphasis on conscious thinking
3. emphasis on active construction of knowledge and understanding
4. underscore the importance of examining developmental changes in children's thinking
5. information-processing approach offers detailed descriptions of cognitive processes

COGNITIVE THEORY CRITICISMS

1. skepticism exists about the timing and manner of development according to Piaget's stages.
2. Piaget underestimated the cognitive skills of infants and overestimated cognitive skills of adolescents.
3. Little attention is given to individual variations in cognitive development.
4. The information-processing approach does not provide and adequate descriptions of developmental changes in cognition.
5. Psychoanalytic theorists argues not enough credit is given to unconscious thought.

BEHAVIORAL THEORY

States development is observable behavior that can be learned thru social experience with environment.

SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

Stresses the importance of reciprocal interactions among person/cognition, behavior, and the environment.

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES

1. PAVLOV'S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
2. SKINNER'S OPPERANT CONDITIONING
3. BANDURA'S SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

PAVLOV'S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

1.dog salivating in anticipation of food due to ringing bell.
2. John Watson. Loud noise at sight of rat produced fear of rat without the noise.
3. It is believed classical conditioning is responsible for many fears.

SKINNER'S OPPERANT CONDITIONING

1. behavior followed by pleasant consequences more likely to recur. opposite also true
2. Rewards and punishment that occur in the environment actually shape development
3. For Skinner, the key aspect of development is observable behavior, not thoughts or emotions

BANDURA'S SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

1. Cognition as well as environment and behavior, shape development.
2. Cognitive processes are involved in learning.
3. Observational learning occurs thru observing what others do.
4. Bandura proposes a model of learning and development that involves interaction among the behavior, the person, and the environment.

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES
Contributions

1. They provide an emphasis on the importance of scientific research.
2. They focus on environmental determinants of behavior.
3. Bandura's theory underscores the importance of observational learning.
4. Social cognitive theory emphasized person and cognitive factors.

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES
Criticisms

1. Pavlov's and Skinner's theories allow for too little emphasis on cognition.
2. They all put too much emphasis on environmental determinants.
3. There is inadequate attention to developmental changes.
4. They are too mechanical and give inadequate consideration to the spontaneity and creativity of humans.

ETHOLOGICAL THEORY

1. Ethologists stress the timing of certain influences and the powerful roles that evolution and biological foundations play in development.
2. Lorenz's study of imprinting in geese showed that innate learning within a limited critical period is based on attachment to the first moving object seen, usually the mother.
3. The notion of a sensitive period, a term reserved for humans, reflects the recent expansion of the ethological view of human development.
4. Bowlby's theory of a secure attachment resulting in optimal development is an application of ethological theory.

ETHOLOGICAL THEORY Contributions

1. It provides and increased focus on the biological and evolutionary basis of development.
2. Ethological theory promotes the use of careful observations in naturalistic settings.
3, It emphasizes sensitive periods of development.

ETHOLOGICAL THEORY Criticisms

1. The critical ad sensitive period concepts may be too rigid.
2. The emphasis on biological foundations is too strong.
3. there is inadequate attention given to cognition.
4. More research has been generated with animals than with humans.

ECOLOGICAL THEORY

1. Ecological theories emphasize the impact of environmental contexts on development.

BROFENBRENNER'S BIOECOLOGICAL THEORY (5 interacting environmental systems)

1.MICROSYSTEM- setting in which the individual lives,direct interactions with person's family,peers,school,and neighborhood.
2. MESOSYSTEM- relations among microsystems. Relations of family experiences to school, school to church, and family to peer etc.
3. EXOSYSTEM- is involved when experiences in another social setting, in which the individual does not have an active role, influence what the individual experiences in an immediate context.
4. MACROSYSTEM- involves the culture in which the individual lives.
5. CHRONOSYSTEM- involves the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances.

SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXTS

CULTURE- one key sociocultural context that influences the behavior and development of its members. Culture is a term that refers to customs and social norms that are the result of interpersonal interactions over time
ETHNICITY- is another key sociocultural context that influences behavior and development. It is a term that refers to a myriad of attributes with a rich cultural heritage and includes nationality, race, religion, and language.
GENDER- is another key sociocultural context that influences behavior and development. It is a term that refers to the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being male of female.

Ecological theory:contexts of L-S development:Individiual, Family, and Extrafamilial contexts.

1. Regardless of ethnic group, poor children are more likely to be spanked than nonpoor children.
2. Regardless of ethnic group, when compared with children growing up in poor homes, nonpoor children are more likely to experience the following:
Have their speech responded to
Be provided with toys or interesting activities
Have 10 or more books of their own.
*See their father daily.
3. Sources of resilience may come from individual, family and extrafamilial contexts.
Positive individual traits, close and caring family ties, and extrafamilial support are associated with resiliency in children being raised in adverse conditions.

EVALUATING ECOLOGICAL THEORY: Contributions

1. A systematic examination of macro/micro dimensions of environmental systems.
2. Attention to connections between environmental settings (mesosystem)
3. Consideration of sociohistorical influences on development (chronosystem).

EVALUATING ECOLOGICAL THEORY: Criticisms

1. Even with added discussion of biological influences in recent years, there is still too little attention to biological foundations of development.
2. Inadequate attention to cognitive processes.

ECLECTIC ORIENTATION

Does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects and uses from each theory what ever is considered the best in it.

RESEARCH IN L-S DEVELOPMENT: Methods for collecting data.

1. Observation
2. Survey and Interview
3. Standardized Tests
4. Case Studies
5. Life-History Records
6. Physiological Measures

RESEARCH DESIGNS

1.Descriptive Research
2. Correlational Research
3. Experimental Research

TIME SPAN RESEARCH

1.Cross-sectional Approach
2. Longitudinal Approach
3. Sequential Approach
4. Cohort Effects

OBSERVATION

1.Scientific observation is highly systematic: it requires knowing what to look for, conducting observations in an unbiased manner, accurately recording and categorizing what you see, and communicating your observations.
2. Observations occur either in labs or naturalistic settings. A laboratory is a controlled setting from which many complex factors of the real world have been removed. In naturalistic observations, behavior is observed outside of a lab in the real world.

SURVEY AND INTERVIEW

1. A way to quickly gather information about experiences, beliefs, and feelings is to ask people about them.
2. Good interviews and surveys involve clear, unbiased, and unambiguous questions.
3. Some survey questions are unstructured and open-ended, whereas others are more structured and specific.
4. One limitation of interviews and questionnaires is that people often give socially desirable answers rather than honest answers.

STANDARDIZED TESTS

1. Commercially prepared tests with uniform/standardized administration and scoring procedures that assess performance in different domains, where test scores can be compared across individuals.
2. The main advantage of these tests is that they provide information about individual differences among people.
3. One criticism is that some standardized tests may be culturally biased.

CASE STUDIES

1. An in-depth look at an individual to examine unique aspects of a person's life.
2. Generalizability can be a problem because each subject has a unique genetic makeup and life experiences.

LIFE-HISTORY RECORDS

Information about a lifetime chronology of events and activities. They often involves a combination of data records on education, work, and family.

PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

1. Are being employed more and more in developmental research.
2. Includes such things as hormone levels, neuroimaging and so on.
3. Researchers must keep in mind that physiological measures must be interpreted with caution.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

1. Goal is the observe and record behavior.
2. All the aforementioned data collection techniques are considered to be descriptive methods.
3. Descriptive research cannot tell us about causation,

CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

1. Goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics. It is useful because the stronger the two events are correlated, the more effectively we can predict one from the other.
2. A correlational coefficient is the statistical measure that is used to examine relations between variables. The number ranges from +1.00 to -1.00.
3. Correlation does not imply causation.

CORRELATIONAL COEFFICIENT

1.ranges from +1.00 to -1.00
2.Correlation of 0 means that there is no association between the factors.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

1. Experiment allows researchers to determine causes of behavior by carefully regulated procedures in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated, and all other factors remain constant.
2. "Cause" is the factor being manipulated."Effect" is the behavior that changes as the result of the manipulation.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH details

1. Independent variable- the manipulated or experimental variable.
2. Dependent variable- factor being measured, sometimes called test or outcome variable.
3. Experimental group- the individuals who experience the manipulation or the experimental variable.
4. Control group- the group that is in every way like the experimental group but is not give the experimental treatment.
5. Random assignment- assigning participants to either experimental or control groups randomly, so that differences of the groups will not be caused by any preexisting differences between them.

CROSS-SECTIONAL APPROACH (time span research)

1. Individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
2. Does not require time for individuals to age.
3. Disadvantages: No info on how individuals change or the stability of their characteristics. A major disadvantage is the COHORT EFFECT.

LONGTITUDINAL APPROACH (time span research)

1. Same individuals studied over time.
2. Provides information regarding stability and change in development and the importance of early experience for later development.
3. Disadvantages: Expensive and time consuming, but it has the advantage of eliminating the cohort effect. A potential for subjects to drop out due to sickness, loss of interest, or moving away. Subjects that remain could bias the results because they may be dissimilar from the ones that dropped out.

SEQUENTIAL APPROACH (time span research)

1. A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches.
2. Individuals of different ages are tested across time.
3. Is complex, expensive, and time consuming, but does provide information that is impossible to obtain from cross-sectional or longitudinal approaches alone.

COHORT EFFECTS (time span research)

1. People born similar time in history, thus share similar experiences.
2. Effects are dues to a person's time of birth or generation, not to actual age.
3.Can differ in years of education,health,attitudes,values, and economic status. A cohort consists of people born the same year.
4. Cross-sectional studies can show how different cohorts respond,but they can confuse age changes with cohort effects.
5. Longitudinal studies are effective in studying ages changes but only within one cohort.
6. With sequential studies, both ages changes in one cohort can be examined and compared to ages changes in another cohort.

CONDUCTING ETHICAL RESEARCH (APA ethical guidelines)

1. Informed consent. Risks, parent approval etc.
2. Confidentiality of all data.
3. Debriefing - upon completion of study
4. Deception- Hiding the purpose of the study until completely to promote natural behavior in participants.

MINIMIZING BIAS

1. Gender bias- important to keep in mind you cannot generalize research conducted on one gender to the other gender.
2. Cultural and ethnic bias - can be fought be including more people from diverse ethnic groups in research.
3 Ethnic Gloss- the tendency to overgeneralize about ethnic groups .

RAYMOND BURIEL

1. Prof Chicano studies Pomona.
2.Concerns regarding acculturation level and generational status of parents and children and consideration on how these factors influence family processes and outcomes.

MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN

1. President of Children's Defense Fund.
2. Tireless advocate of children's rights, calling attention to the needs of children.

JEROME KAGAN

1.did extensive research on personality traits beginning with infancy and continued through adulthood

CONRAD LORENZ

1. Imprinting, the rapid innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object that is seen.

ANN MASTEN

1.She studies risk and resilience in development, with a focus on the processes leading to positive adaptation and outcomes in young people whose development is threatened by adversity.

WALTER MISCHEL

1.Mischel's analyses revealed that the individual's behavior, when closely examined, was highly dependent upon situational cues, rather than expressed consistently across diverse situations that differed in meaning.
2. Mischel maintained that behavior is shaped largely by the exigencies of a given situation.
3.That people act in consistent ways across different situations, reflecting an underlying consistency of personality traits, is a myth.

PHYLLIS MOEN

1.Studies how the intersection between individual lives and societal institutions are changing in the face of major social transformations in the family, the economy, workplace, gender roles, and longevity.

BERNICE NEUGARTEN

1.Was one of the first to look deep within the field of aging
2. She also broke many stereotypes about aging, such as, the midlife crisis, menopause being a necessarily traumatic experience, and the Empty Nest Syndrome.
3.Her research dispelled the notion of a midlife crisis and showed that there was no single successful route into aging

ROSS PARKE

1.research focuses on the development of social behavior in young children. As part of our long-standing exploration of mother-father differences in styles of interaction, we are examining the linkages between family and peer social systems.

Humanistic theory

normally associated with Maslow and Rogers; any personality theory that emphasizes that people are positively motivated and progress towards higher levels of functioning (more to human existence than dealing with hidden conflicts); stresses people to potential for growth and change as people experience life

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