Chapter 4: Microscopy, Staining, and Classification

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Binomial nomenclature

the classification method used in the Linnaean system of taxonomy, which assigns each species both a genus name and a specific epithet

Heat fixation

a technique that uses the heat from a flame to attach a smear to a slide

Phylum

Taxonomical grouping of similar classes of organisms

Acid fast stain

a differential stain used to penetrate waxy cell walls

family

taxonomical grouping of similar genera of organisms

Kingdom

taxonomical grouping of similar phyla of organisms

Order

taxonomical grouping of similar families of organisms

Phage typing

method of classifying microorganisms in which unknown bacteria are identified by observing plaques

compound microscope

microscope using a series of lenses of magnification

Fluorescent microscope

type of light microscope that uses an ultraviolet light source to fluoresce objects

confocal microscope

type of light microscope that uses ultraviolet lasers to illuminate fluorescent chemicals in a single plane of the specimen

plaque

the clear region within the bacterial lawn where growth is inhibited by bacteriophages

simple microscope

microscope containing a single magnifying lens

bacteriophage

virus that infects and usually destroys bacterial cells

primary stain

colors all cells

smear

the thin film of organisms on the slide

Class

taxonomical grouping of similar orders of organisms

Resolution

the ability to distinguish between objects that are close together

mordant

a substance that binds to a dye and makes it less soluble

Wavelength

the distance between two corresponding points of a wave

Species

taxonomic category of organisms that can successfully interbreed

Genus

taxonomical grouping of similar species of organisms

Magnification

the apparent increase in size of an object viewed via microscopy

decolorizer

a solution that washes the primary stain away

Which of the following is one-billionth of a meter?
a. a millimeter
b. a centimeter
c. a nanometer
d. a micrometer

c

A thin film of microorganisms on a slide is called a ______.

smear

Taxonomy consists of all of the following activities EXCEPT
a. classification
b. staining
c. identification
d. nomenclature

b

Put the following taxonomic groups in order from broadest to most specific.

phylum, order, family, genus

Plaques are associated with which of the following methods of laboratory identification of microorganisms?
a. serological tests
b. phage typing
c. nucleic acid analysis
d. biochemical tests

b

Staining is an important way to improve which of the following aspects of microscopy?
a. resolution and contrast
b. magnification and resolution
c. contrast and magnification
d. numerical aperture and contrast

a

What is an example of a negative stain?

a capsule stain

If you wanted to determine if a microorganism fermented a particular carbohydrate, what kind of tests would you use?

biochemical tests

In a Linnaean taxonomic scheme, closely related genera are placed in a larger grouping called the

family

The limit of useful magnification for a light microscope is

2000x

What is the underlying rationale for how phage typing works?

Phages bind to only certain types of bacterial cells.

Carl Woese proposed three domains, based on what characteristic of cells?

ribosomal RNA sequences

Which unit of measurement is most likely to be used to describe a virus?

nanometer

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