Biology Test Protists

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Bricker Biology 1/26/2013

What is Protozoa?

animal like protists

Diseases caused by Protozoa (5)

Malarya
Giardia
Trypanasoma
Leishmania
Entamoeba

Describe Malarya

caused by a protist called plasmodium
vector: mosquito
symptoms- high fever, chills
*plasmodium will initially infect liver, and then the red blood cells

Describe Giardia

causes giardiasis (beaver fever)
comes from consuming in contaminated food or water
vector: lives in intestinal tract of beaver, beaver poops in water, and then is consumed by a human
symptoms- diahrrea, vomiting

Describe Trypanasoma

causes African sleeping sickness
vector: tsetse fly
symptoms: high fever, chills, end up in a coma, die

Describe Leishmania

causes leishmaniasis
vector: sand fly
causes disfiguring skin sores on body

Describe entoamoeba

causes amebic dysentery
lives in amoeb a intestines
consumed in water
damages intestine walls, causes nternal bleeding

What is a vector?

an organism that carries the disease

Tell how an Amoeba obtains food

After phagocytosis, amoeba moes toward food as psuedopod
forms an outward pocket, traps particle
membrane encloses around food
food is placed in food vacuole

Tell Amoeba exocytosis

amoeba removes waste products too large to pass by exocytosis
moves to cell membrane
membrane and waste product fuse together
membrane breaks open and waste is releases

What is the nucleus' job?

contols all cell functions

What is contractile vacuoles' job?

pumps out excess water, and regulates turgor pressure

Describe Amoeboid Movement

ectoplasm and endoplasm begin to flow
pushes against the cell membrane in the direction the amoeba wants to move
pushing the membrane outward to form a psuedopod

What does psuedopod mean?

false, foot//due to the fact that the foot can be anywhere on the cell

Describe Ectoplasm

really thin, more fluid

Describe Endoplasm

dense, very thick, makes up rest of the inside amoeba

How does an amoeba reproduce?

reproduces asexually, by binary fission

What is a cyst?

Forms on an amoeba; protects outside of amoeba, when unfavorable conditions occur (high heat, too cold, no water

What is irritablility?

chracteristics of ectoplasm and endooplasm, that allows amoebas to respond ot environment

Tell amoebas preferences

amoebas can move toward certain chemicals, away from high heat or extreme cold, does not like light

How does a paramecium obtain food?

Cillia lining beats back and forth
water comes in oral groove, through mouth pore and down gullet
food is placed in vacuole for digestion
excess water is pumped out

What is a radiating canal or contractile vacuoles' jobs?

helps pull more water out of endoplasm, whatever can not be digested is pumped out of anal pore

What is a macronucleus?

controls all cell funtions

What is a micronucleus?

only functions during reproduction

What is a trychocyst?

coiled fiber inside, used as defense mechanism

*if predator came into contact, it would kill the predator

How does paramecium reproduce?

asexually; by binary fission.
step1: micronucleus divides by meiosis
step2: micronucleus divides, has 4 cells, each cell with haploid chromosome number
step3: 3 micronuclei will disintegrate, remaining will divide through mitosis-then has 2 micronuclei each haploid
step4:2 paramecia join at oral groove and exchange a micronucleus--2 micronuclei join and macronucleus disintegrates and new micro forms from macro

What is conjugation?

allows for genetic variation among offspring

What form is chemical waste products stored in?

crystals

How does vorticella reproduce?

fission

What are three methods of movement?

flagellates
amoeboids
cilliates

What causes euglenoids to lose their chloroplasts?

high temperatures
antibiotics
uv light

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