ANS, senses and endocrine system

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define: effector

carries out the response

define: receptor

detects the stimulus

define: motor neuron

neuron that sends impulses away from the CNS

define: sensory neuron

neuron that sends impulses to the CNS

define: nterneuron

neuron within the CNS

what are the control center and effectors of cranial autonomic reflex?

Brain and cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or gland

what are the control center and effectors of cranium somatic reflex

Brain and skeletal muscle

what are the control ceneter and effectors of spinal autonomic reflex?

Spinal cord and cardiac muscle or glands

What are the control center and effectors of spinal somatic reflex?

Spinal cord and skeletal muscle

The patellar reflex is an example of which type of reflex?

Spinal somatic

The pupillary reflex is an example of which type of reflex?

Cranial autonomic

Which cranial nerve carries the sense of vision from the retina of the eye?

CN II

Which cranial nerve carries somatic sensation from the cornea of the eye?

CN V

When eliciting the corneal reflex, which muscles contract to cause the eye to close shut?

Orbicularis oculi

True or False-- When eliciting the corneal reflex, sensory input is relayed along the trigeminal nerve (CN V), and motor output is relayed along the facial nerve (CN VII).

True

The (A) division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls "rest and digest" activities, whereas the (B) division of the ANS controls the fight or flight response.

A. parasympathetic B. sympathetic

Activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system will cause the pupils of the eye to

dilate

Somatic motor neurons innervate [a] muscle. Autonomic motor neurons innervate [b] and [c] muscle and [d]

a. skeleta b. smooth c. cardiac d. glands

Somatic reflexes can be either [a], if the information travels through the brain, or [b], if the information travels through the spinal cord.

a. cranial b. spinal

The parasympathetic division of the ANS is also called the [blank] division because of its anatomical location.

craniosacral

what four cranial nerves carry parasympathetic information?

CN III oculomotor, CN VII facial, CN IX glossopharyngeal, CN X vagus

The parasympathetic nerves that innervate structures within the pelvic cavity arise from the [blank].

spinal

The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the [blank] division because of its anatomical location

thoracolumbar

Sympathetic ganglia that connect to spinal nerves via the white and gray communicating rami are the [blank] ganglia.

sympathetic trunk

The major sympathetic ganglia that lie on top of the unpaired abdominal blood vessels (celia trunk, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery) are known as [blank] ganglia because of their anatomic location relative to the vertebral column.

prevertebral

what are the four sympathetic outflow pathways?

spinal nerve, postganglionic sympatheic nerve, splanchnic nerve, adrenal medulla

The sensory organs involved in the patellar reflex are called [a] and they are located within this group of muscle [b].

a. muscle spindles b. quadriceps femoris

The [blank] nerve carries afferent input of the corneal reflex.

CN V trigeminal

The [blank] nerve carries efferent input of the corneal reflex

CN VII facial

The [blank] nerve carries efferent input of the corneal reflex

protective; to detect pressure on the cornea

The function of the pupillary reflex is:

protective; detect light entering the eye

The [blank] nerve carries afferent input of the pupillary reflex

CN II optic

The [blank] nerve carries efferent input of the pupillary reflex.

CN III oculormotor

What cranial nerve innervates the lacrimal gland

facial

What cranial nerve innervates the heart

vagus

What cranial nerve innervates the bronchioles

vagus

What cranial nerve innervates the salivary glands (under tongue)

facial

What cranial nerve innervates the stomach and other digestive glands

vagus

What cranial nerve innervates the kidneys

vagus

What cranial nerve innervates the salivary glands (parotid)

glossopharyngeal

What cranial nerve innervates the ciliary muscles and iris of eye

occulomotor

What are the general senses?

touch and proprioceptors receptors in the skin and stretch receptors within walls of viscera

What are the special senses?

receptors in the head; smell, taste, vision, hearing and equilibrium

Identify the special sense(s) with receptor organs located within the petrous part of the temporal bone

equilibrium and hearing

Tactile (Meissner) corpuscles that detect light touch are located within th

papillary layer of the dermis

Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles that detect deep pressure are located within the

reticular layer of the dermis

The olfactory nerves extend through this structure.

Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

The vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) carries the special senses o

equilibrium and hearing

Taste receptors on the posterior third of the tongue are innervated by the (a) , while taste receptors on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are innervated by the .(b)

a. glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) b. facial nerve (CN VII)

Which sensory receptor is located throughout the dermis

free nerve ending

Which sensory receptor is located deep within the reticular layer of the dermis

lamellated corpuscle

Which sensory receptor is located within the dermal papillae

tactile corpuscle

Which sensory receptor is located at dermal/epidermal junction

tactile disc

Tactile (Meissner) corpuscles detect:

fine, discriminative touch (textures and shapes)

Lamellated corpuscles detect:

deep pressure, vibration

what cell is located at basal surface of olfactory epithelium and are precursor (stem) cells

Basal cells

what cell is located at apical surface of olfactory epithelium and upport the specialized cells

Supporting cells

what cell is located at middle of olfactory epithelium, between apical and basal surface and are bipolar, smell receptors

Olfactory receptor cells

what kind of cells are found at the base of the taste bud

Basal cells

what kind of cells are found in part of the taste bud, light in color and attached to nerve

Gustatory cells

what kind of cells are found in part of the taste bud, dark in color and are not attached to nerve

Supporting cells

What kind of cells in the taste buds produce a glycoprotein

Supporting cells

what kind of cells in the taste buds detect chemicals and transmits nerve signals

Detect chemicals and transmits nerve signals

what kind of cells in the taste buds are a Precursor (stem) cell

basal cells

Of the cell layers that compose the retina, which layer contains cells whose exons leave the eye at the optic disc to become the optic nerve?

Ganglion cell layer

The spiral organ is located within the [a] of the cochlear. This chamber is separated from the scala tympani by the [b], and separated from the scala vestibule by the [c], and is filled with a fluid called [d].

a. scala media b. basilar membrane c. vestibular membrane d. endolymph

in the eye, what is the space between the cornea and the iris/pupil

anterior chamber

in the eye, what is the watery fluid that circulates within the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye

aqueous humor

in the eye, what is the pigmented, vascular layer found between the retina and the sclera

choroid layer

in the eye, what is the thickened extention of the vascular tunic containing the ciliary muscle

ciliary body

in the eye, what is the smooth muscle within the ciliary body composed of both circular and radial muscle fibers

ciliary muscle

in the eye, what is the depression of the macula lutea that contains only cones

fovea centralis

in the eye, what is the colored part of the eye

iris

in the eye, what is the transparent, biconves structure composed of highly specialized, modified epithelium

lens

in the eye, what is the "yellow spot" on the retina located suoerior to the optic disc on the posterior wall of the eye

macula lutea

in the eye, what is the location where the axons of ganglion cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve

optic disc

in the eye, what is the anterior-most part of the retina, which appears serrated

ora serrata

in the eye, what is the space between the iris and the lens

posterior chamber

in the eye, what is the neural tunic of the eye; composed of several layers of neurons involved with transducing light energy into nerve signals

retina

in the eye, what is the ligament extending between ciliary muscles and the lens

suspensory ligament

in the eye, what is the clear, gelatinous material within the posterior cavity

vitreous humor

in the eye, what is the middle layer of the wall of the eye, containing blood vessels and pigment molecules

vascular tunic

in the eye, what is the metallic-appearing, opalescent inner layer of the sclera; it is present in many animals (e.g. the cow eye), but not the human eye

tapetum lucidum

in the ear, what is the fibrocartilage-lined tube that connects the middle-ear cavity to the nasal cavity

auditory tube

in the ear, what is the spiral-shaped organ found within the inner ear

cochlea

in the ear, what are the three tiny bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) found within the inner ear

ossicles

in the ear, what is the fluid contained within the scala media/cochlear duct

endolymph

in the ear, what is the canal leading from the auricle of the ear to the tympanic membrane

external acoustic meatus

in the ear, what is the portion of ear located within the petrous part of the temporal bone that includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals

inner ear

in the ear, what is the cavaity between the external ear and inner ear; contains ossicles

tympanic cavity (middle ear)

in the ear, what is the opening into the scala vestibuli that has the foot of the stapes covering it

oval window

in the ear, what is the fluid contained within the scala vestibuli and scala tympani

perilymph

in the ear, what is the external ear, composed of an elastic cartilage skeleton that is covered by a membrane

auricle

in the ear, what is the small hole at the end of the scala tympani that is covered by a membrane

round window

in the ear, what are the three ringlike canals that are oriented at right angles to each other and communicate with the vestibule

semicircular canals

in the ear, what is the organ composed of specialized epithelium that is found within the scala media (cochlear duct) of the cochlea

spiral organ

in the ear, what is the small muscle connecting the neck of the stapes to the temporal bone

stapedius muscle

in the ear, what is the gelatinous membrane in which the hair cells of the spiral organ are embedded

tectorial membrane

in the ear, what is the small muscle connecting the handle of the malleus to the cartilage of the auditory tube

tensor tympani muscle

in the ear, what is the drumlike, tight, thin membrane that separates the external-ear cavity to the middle ear

tympanic membrane

in the ear, what is the largest membranous sac in the vestibule; contains receptors for sensing horizontal motion

utricle

in the ear, what is the cranial nerve , which travels through the internal acoustic meatus

vestibulocochlear nerve

Structures that produce and release hormones into the blood are known as (blank) glands.

endocrine

True or False-- The posterior pituitary gland arises embryonically as a downgrowth of the diencephalon of the brain, therefore it is nervous tissue.

True

Parafollicular C cells are located in the

thyroid gland

Parafollicular C cells are responsible for producing which hormone?

calcitonin

This endocrine gland consists of a cortex and medulla, with each part embryonically derived from different tissues.

adrenal gland

This endocrine gland consists of follicles formed by simple cuboidal epithelium

thyroid gland

The pineal gland is responsible for producing which hormone?

melatonin

The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone in response to (increasing or decreasing) blood calcium levels.

decreasing

The major endocrine glands that secrete sex steroid hormones in the male and female are the testes and ovaries, respectively.

True

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