carries out the response
detects the stimulus
define: motor neuron
neuron that sends impulses away from the CNS
define: sensory neuron
neuron that sends impulses to the CNS
neuron within the CNS
what are the control center and effectors of cranial autonomic reflex?
Brain and cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or gland
what are the control center and effectors of cranium somatic reflex
Brain and skeletal muscle
what are the control ceneter and effectors of spinal autonomic reflex?
Spinal cord and cardiac muscle or glands
What are the control center and effectors of spinal somatic reflex?
Spinal cord and skeletal muscle
The patellar reflex is an example of which type of reflex?
The pupillary reflex is an example of which type of reflex?
Which cranial nerve carries the sense of vision from the retina of the eye?
Which cranial nerve carries somatic sensation from the cornea of the eye?
When eliciting the corneal reflex, which muscles contract to cause the eye to close shut?
True or False-- When eliciting the corneal reflex, sensory input is relayed along the trigeminal nerve (CN V), and motor output is relayed along the facial nerve (CN VII).
The (A) division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls "rest and digest" activities, whereas the (B) division of the ANS controls the fight or flight response.
A. parasympathetic B. sympathetic
Activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system will cause the pupils of the eye to
Somatic motor neurons innervate [a] muscle. Autonomic motor neurons innervate [b] and [c] muscle and [d]
a. skeleta b. smooth c. cardiac d. glands
Somatic reflexes can be either [a], if the information travels through the brain, or [b], if the information travels through the spinal cord.
a. cranial b. spinal
The parasympathetic division of the ANS is also called the [blank] division because of its anatomical location.
what four cranial nerves carry parasympathetic information?
CN III oculomotor, CN VII facial, CN IX glossopharyngeal, CN X vagus
The parasympathetic nerves that innervate structures within the pelvic cavity arise from the [blank].
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the [blank] division because of its anatomical location
Sympathetic ganglia that connect to spinal nerves via the white and gray communicating rami are the [blank] ganglia.
The major sympathetic ganglia that lie on top of the unpaired abdominal blood vessels (celia trunk, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery) are known as [blank] ganglia because of their anatomic location relative to the vertebral column.
what are the four sympathetic outflow pathways?
spinal nerve, postganglionic sympatheic nerve, splanchnic nerve, adrenal medulla
The sensory organs involved in the patellar reflex are called [a] and they are located within this group of muscle [b].
a. muscle spindles b. quadriceps femoris
The [blank] nerve carries afferent input of the corneal reflex.
CN V trigeminal
The [blank] nerve carries efferent input of the corneal reflex
CN VII facial
The [blank] nerve carries efferent input of the corneal reflex
protective; to detect pressure on the cornea
The function of the pupillary reflex is:
protective; detect light entering the eye
The [blank] nerve carries afferent input of the pupillary reflex
CN II optic
The [blank] nerve carries efferent input of the pupillary reflex.
CN III oculormotor
What cranial nerve innervates the lacrimal gland
What cranial nerve innervates the heart
What cranial nerve innervates the bronchioles
What cranial nerve innervates the salivary glands (under tongue)
What cranial nerve innervates the stomach and other digestive glands
What cranial nerve innervates the kidneys
What cranial nerve innervates the salivary glands (parotid)
What cranial nerve innervates the ciliary muscles and iris of eye
What are the general senses?
touch and proprioceptors receptors in the skin and stretch receptors within walls of viscera
What are the special senses?
receptors in the head; smell, taste, vision, hearing and equilibrium
Identify the special sense(s) with receptor organs located within the petrous part of the temporal bone
equilibrium and hearing
Tactile (Meissner) corpuscles that detect light touch are located within th
papillary layer of the dermis
Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles that detect deep pressure are located within the
reticular layer of the dermis
The olfactory nerves extend through this structure.
Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
The vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) carries the special senses o
equilibrium and hearing
Taste receptors on the posterior third of the tongue are innervated by the (a) , while taste receptors on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are innervated by the .(b)
a. glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) b. facial nerve (CN VII)
Which sensory receptor is located throughout the dermis
free nerve ending
Which sensory receptor is located deep within the reticular layer of the dermis
Which sensory receptor is located within the dermal papillae
Which sensory receptor is located at dermal/epidermal junction
Tactile (Meissner) corpuscles detect:
fine, discriminative touch (textures and shapes)
Lamellated corpuscles detect:
deep pressure, vibration
what cell is located at basal surface of olfactory epithelium and are precursor (stem) cells
what cell is located at apical surface of olfactory epithelium and upport the specialized cells
what cell is located at middle of olfactory epithelium, between apical and basal surface and are bipolar, smell receptors
Olfactory receptor cells
what kind of cells are found at the base of the taste bud
what kind of cells are found in part of the taste bud, light in color and attached to nerve
what kind of cells are found in part of the taste bud, dark in color and are not attached to nerve
What kind of cells in the taste buds produce a glycoprotein
what kind of cells in the taste buds detect chemicals and transmits nerve signals
Detect chemicals and transmits nerve signals
what kind of cells in the taste buds are a Precursor (stem) cell
Of the cell layers that compose the retina, which layer contains cells whose exons leave the eye at the optic disc to become the optic nerve?
Ganglion cell layer
The spiral organ is located within the [a] of the cochlear. This chamber is separated from the scala tympani by the [b], and separated from the scala vestibule by the [c], and is filled with a fluid called [d].
a. scala media b. basilar membrane c. vestibular membrane d. endolymph
in the eye, what is the space between the cornea and the iris/pupil
in the eye, what is the watery fluid that circulates within the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
in the eye, what is the pigmented, vascular layer found between the retina and the sclera
in the eye, what is the thickened extention of the vascular tunic containing the ciliary muscle
in the eye, what is the smooth muscle within the ciliary body composed of both circular and radial muscle fibers
in the eye, what is the depression of the macula lutea that contains only cones
in the eye, what is the colored part of the eye
in the eye, what is the transparent, biconves structure composed of highly specialized, modified epithelium
in the eye, what is the "yellow spot" on the retina located suoerior to the optic disc on the posterior wall of the eye
in the eye, what is the location where the axons of ganglion cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve
in the eye, what is the anterior-most part of the retina, which appears serrated
in the eye, what is the space between the iris and the lens
in the eye, what is the neural tunic of the eye; composed of several layers of neurons involved with transducing light energy into nerve signals
in the eye, what is the ligament extending between ciliary muscles and the lens
in the eye, what is the clear, gelatinous material within the posterior cavity
in the eye, what is the middle layer of the wall of the eye, containing blood vessels and pigment molecules
in the eye, what is the metallic-appearing, opalescent inner layer of the sclera; it is present in many animals (e.g. the cow eye), but not the human eye
in the ear, what is the fibrocartilage-lined tube that connects the middle-ear cavity to the nasal cavity
in the ear, what is the spiral-shaped organ found within the inner ear
in the ear, what are the three tiny bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) found within the inner ear
in the ear, what is the fluid contained within the scala media/cochlear duct
in the ear, what is the canal leading from the auricle of the ear to the tympanic membrane
external acoustic meatus
in the ear, what is the portion of ear located within the petrous part of the temporal bone that includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
in the ear, what is the cavaity between the external ear and inner ear; contains ossicles
tympanic cavity (middle ear)
in the ear, what is the opening into the scala vestibuli that has the foot of the stapes covering it
in the ear, what is the fluid contained within the scala vestibuli and scala tympani
in the ear, what is the external ear, composed of an elastic cartilage skeleton that is covered by a membrane
in the ear, what is the small hole at the end of the scala tympani that is covered by a membrane
in the ear, what are the three ringlike canals that are oriented at right angles to each other and communicate with the vestibule
in the ear, what is the organ composed of specialized epithelium that is found within the scala media (cochlear duct) of the cochlea
in the ear, what is the small muscle connecting the neck of the stapes to the temporal bone
in the ear, what is the gelatinous membrane in which the hair cells of the spiral organ are embedded
in the ear, what is the small muscle connecting the handle of the malleus to the cartilage of the auditory tube
tensor tympani muscle
in the ear, what is the drumlike, tight, thin membrane that separates the external-ear cavity to the middle ear
in the ear, what is the largest membranous sac in the vestibule; contains receptors for sensing horizontal motion
in the ear, what is the cranial nerve , which travels through the internal acoustic meatus
Structures that produce and release hormones into the blood are known as (blank) glands.
True or False-- The posterior pituitary gland arises embryonically as a downgrowth of the diencephalon of the brain, therefore it is nervous tissue.
Parafollicular C cells are located in the
Parafollicular C cells are responsible for producing which hormone?
This endocrine gland consists of a cortex and medulla, with each part embryonically derived from different tissues.
This endocrine gland consists of follicles formed by simple cuboidal epithelium
The pineal gland is responsible for producing which hormone?
The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone in response to (increasing or decreasing) blood calcium levels.
The major endocrine glands that secrete sex steroid hormones in the male and female are the testes and ovaries, respectively.