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Pacific Ridge School

Cell junctions

connections between cells that hold the cells together as a unit

Cell theory

states that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells

cell wall

a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. protects and helps cell maintain shape

Central Vacuole

A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development

chloroplasts

sites of photosynthesis; found only in plants and algae

Chromatin

Within the nucleus; a fibrous material made of DNA and proteins

cilia

short hair-like projections that help the cell move

Cristae

An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP

cytoplasm

Everything inside a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nulceus (goo inside of cell).

Cytosol

A semifluid substance within the membrane of cells; where organelles are found

Electron microscope

A microscope that instead of using light, focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or on its surface

Endomembrane System

The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

within the cytoplasm, little net. extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cell

eukaryotic cells

has a membrane -enclosed nucleus and other membrane- enclosed organelles

extracellular matrix (ECM)

animal cells produe. layer helps hold together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane. main component of ECM is glycoprotein.

flagella

long tail-like projections that help the orgainsm move around

Fluid mosaic

the phospholipids of the plasma membrane are in constant motion

Food Vacuoles

formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle

Golgi apparatus

accepts proteins and transports them to where they need to be. it also gets rid of sugar (glyco. - protein)

grana

(granum) chloroplast's solar power packs

Light microscope

works by passing visible light through the specimen such as a microogrganism or a thin slice of animal or plant tissue

Lysosomal Storage Disease

A hereditary disorder associated with abnormal lysosomes, where the sufferer is missing one of the lysosomal digestive enzymes

lysosome

a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes

magnification

an increase in the apparent size of an object

Matrix

the body substance in which tissue cells are embedded

microtubules

the thickest of the three types of fibers that make up cytoskeleton;

Mitochondria

sites of cellular respiration (catabolic process that generates ATP); uses oxygen

Nuclear Envelope

The membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm

nucleotis

center of nucleus which holds DNA and where ribosomes turn messenger RNA into proteins

nucleus

library-keeps DNA/info necessary for everything in cell to function

Plasma membrane

at the boundary of every cell, functions as a selective barrier; made of phospholipids and proteins

prokaryotic cells

lacks a membrane--enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles Ex. bacteria and archae

Resolving power

A measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points

Organelles

tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive

ribosomes

turn messenger RNA into proteins

rough ER

has ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane

scanning electron microscope (SEM)

uses an electron beam to study the surface architecture of a cell or other specimen

Smooth ER

part of the ER where the cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes

stroma

thick fluid enclosed by the inner membrane of a chloroplast

Transmission electron microscope (TEM)

an electron microscope commonly used to study the internal structure of cells

Transport Vesicle

A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell

vacuole

stores water and nutrients for the cell

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