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Drawings are a universal method of expression that are intimate and familiar and portable, and can be done quickly.

Chinese

Invented paper

Paper Charateristics

Plant fibers, beaten to a pulp, mixed with water, & stretched over a mesh frame (like a window screen) to dry

Pigment

Powdered coloring material,

Binder

Substance that holds pigment together

Pencil

Graphite or lead; softer is darker; harder is lighter. Can be edited
(Pablo Picasso, Studies for Guernica, 1937.)
(Chris Ofili, Prince among Thieves with Flowers , 1999.Pencil on paper)

Metalpoint

Sharp metal tip, usually thin silver wire, is used to scratch a drawing into a coated surface.
(Filippino Lippi, Figure Studies, c. 1490. Metalpoint, white gouache (opaque watercolor, pink paper.)

Charcoal

Burnt wood sticks; vine charcoal is the best
(Lion Panel, Chauvet Cave, c. 25,000 B.C.E. Charcoal & other earth pigments.)

Chalk

Uses a nonfat binder with the pigment; flakes easily

Crayons & Pastels

A fatty or greasy binder (such as wax) is used to bind the pigment.
(Edgar Degas, The Singer in Green, c. 1884. Pastel on blue paper.)

Calligraphy

Beautiful writing. calagriphic medium

Gesture

Calligraphic lines that suggest movement, varying between thick & thin

Conceptual

Focus is on the idea, rather than on the artwork itself.
(Sol LeWitt, Wall Drawing #912, 1999. White pencil & black pencil grid on gray walls.)

Installation

Art that involves ceiling, walls & floor
(Raymond Pettibon, Installation at Regen Projects, Los Angeles, 2000.)

Papyrus

A plant the egyptians used as a writing surface

Cave Walls

Oldest realistic, or naturalistic drawings known (Lion Panel, Chauvet Cave, c. 25,000 B.C.E)

Medium

A liquid that holds the pigments together (also called a vehicle)

Binder

An ingredient that ensures that the paint will stick to the surface or support to which it is applied. Paint is applied on a

Support

A surface on which the artist works (such as paper, canvas, board), which has been prepared with a

Ground or Primer

A preliminary coating

Glazes

Thin, translucent layers of color

Impasto

Thick "paste-like" paint "Starry Night"

Liquid Media:

Pen & Ink/ Brush & Ink Wash

Encaustic

Mixed with wax and resin and burned
in, as a heat source passes over the surface: builds up the texture surface

Fresco

Dry pigment is mixed with water & applied to a damp plaster wall or ceiling. Must be worked one small area at a time. Drys quickly

Sfumato

Media and medium are also used to refer to all materials used in a work of art.

Grisaille "french for gray"

A painting technique executed in gray-scale values before color glazes.

Chiaroscuro

Italian for "light-dark." In two-dimensional, realistic art, it is the technique of using light & dark values to show light and shadow, especially as they show the shape of a three dimensional form

Tempera

An aqueous (water) medium like watercolor, with the durability of oil.
Most common binder is egg yolk. Casein (milk-based protein is also used.

Oil

Brillant Pigment is combined with oil (flawless glowing) as the binder & vehicle. Turpentine, or mineral spirits are used to thin the paint & make a glaze.

Watercolor

Clear Pigment with a medium of water & gum arabic that acts as a binder. Usually, white is not added, using the transparent effect of water instead over a white surface.

Buon fresco

"True fresco," paint made simply of pigment and water is applied to wet lime.

Gouache

Watercolor with an inert white pigment added for opacity. Similar to poster paints.

Acrylic

Synthetic/ polymer (plastic) paint perfected in 1950's. The medium & binder is acrylic resins & water, Mimic oil, fast drying

Collage

A French word for pasting or gluing. Refers to the practice of attaching actual objects to a surface.

Blurring Two and Three Dimensional Concepts

Off the Wall! "Paintings" that extend off the wall & onto the floor or ceiling, as with installation art.
(Polly Apfelbaum, Big Bubbles, 2001. Synthetic velvet, fabric dye.1,040 pieces.), (Matthew Ritchie, Parents and Children, 2000. Acrylic marker on wall,enamel on sintra)

Digital

Use of computer to draw, as in AUTOCAD (Computer Aided Drafting)

Wall Art

Drawings directly on the wall - going full circle, back to the Chauvet Cave drawings
(Gary Simmons, Boom, 1996. Chalk and slate paint on wall)

Leonardo da Vinci

An artist, scientist, and thinker. Chiaroscuro light & dark, more painting then drawings, Fresco was his favorite medium

Fresco secco

Dry plaster support

Gesso

A mixture of white pigment and glue hat sealed the wood and could be sanded and rubbed to a smooth, ivorylike finish.

Sol Lewitt

The first contemporary artists to create wall drawings. He create the instructions for making the drawing and entrusts their execution to others.

Jacob Lawerence (1917-2000)

Painted the upheavall of the civil rights movement

Alla prima "Italian for all in one go"

The technique of completing a painting in a single session as opposed to building it up slowly over a period of time. Features opaque impasto and visible brush strokes.

Edgar Degar

Drew a grid to transfer the drawing to a painting "Dancer Adjusting Her Slipper 1873"

A painting's frame characteristics:

Sets it apart, like a jewel.

Media and Medium

Refer to all materials used in a work of art.

Raphael

Uses Fresco medium, "The School of Athens, 1510-11

Diego Rivera

Brought fresco back into the public eye"

Paint is made of?

Pigment, Medium, Binder

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