animals with a backbone; They all have bilateral symmetry and endoskeletons
5 Classes of Vertebrates:
Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals
the largest group of vertebrates- 25,000 species; have been on Earth 500 million years; first vertebrates to evolve
Three groups of fish:
jawless, cartilaginous and bony
Fish Common Characteristics
All are aquatic, cold-blooded, breathe with gills and have scales
scientists who study fish
a body form that is compressed at the sides and tapered at the tail making it easy to glide through the water
along the top or back
side of the fish
a membrane supported by rays or spines that function in swimming or orientation in the water
Types of Fins
Dorsal fins, Anal fins, Pelvic fins, Pectoral fins, Caudal fin
feathery structures located on the sides of the head that removes oxygen from the water and allows it to enter the blood
function is to keep food out of the gills
bony plate covering the gills; function is to draw water over the gills
a row of tiny holes in the skin that begins behind the gill cover and runs along the side to the tail; helps the fish feel movement in the water
all fish have scales to protect their bodies; fish can be classified according to the shape and characteristics of their scales
most fish have this "air" bladder to help move up and down in the water
the location, shape and size of the mouth can be a good indicator of what the fish eats and where it lives
some fish have these "whisker-like" structures to aid in feeling and can be covered with taste buds
are not for breathing; nares allow the fish to smell things in the water
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