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Individual Differences vs General Differences

General Differences : (compares averages in milestones)

Looking at children as a group (averages 150 kids given them a task and taking the average on the kids completing the task a this certain amount of time)
Think about this when saying a child should walk at this age but those are just averages remember the draw back is it is individual development (not studying uniqueness)

vs

Individual Differences

Try to identify biological and environmental factors that make a person unique

Example: a specific gene may cause some children to be more aggressive

Comparing to a whole milestones

Behaviorism

Created by Watson, Pavlov and Skinner

Focus on Environmental Influences

Children develpo because of environmental influences.


Key idea: Reinforcement/ Punishment
Reinforcement = increase in behavior
Punishment= decrease in behavior

Personality beliefs come from reinforcement
ex: Parents valuing education and dad goes out to dinner with daughter for a good report card.

Social Learning Theory

Albert Bandura

key idea: Obeservational/Vicarious learning: You dont have to directly experince something can learn from others by watching
ex: Bobo doll 2 groups observeing aggressive behavior and copying it.

Evolutionary Theory

Darwin

key idea: natural selection: specific traits have been passed over time survival of the fittest

Environmental adaptation: What makes us different and unique cultural differences

Ecological Systems theory

Bronfenbremer

Key ideas:

Biodirectionality: Often child is influenced by otther things but child can influnce environment
child invokes environment.

Hierarchal Systems: Just the enviromnemnt but through certain levels is being affectd.

Ecological Systems Theory (know the 5 systems)

Ch. 1 readings: Freud, Erikson, Watson, Piaget

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Continuous vs. Discontinuous
development

Continuous development: a view of development of skills s adding more of the same tyoe that where already.(transformation over a long period of time.)

Discontinuous development: new and diffferent way of interpreting and responding to the world at certain time periods.(transformation short periods of time.

Examples of how development in one domain affects development in
another

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Examples of the different forms

What Shamu Taught Me About a Happy Marriage: Main Themes

...

Research Methods
Types of Developmental Research

Observation
-Naturalistic (observe in nature)
-Structured (observe in real life controlled setting)

Self Reports
-Clinical Interview (face to face unstructured set of questions in same theme)
-Structured Interview (Everyday has same questions or forms coding dat is very easy)

Psychophysiological
-Heart Rate (goes up from stres before corisol does)
-Cortisol (Response from stress in ANS use salvi swabs to test)

Neurological imaging tech
-fMRI (3D image of the brain tell us which parts have more activity then others)
-EEG (measures electrical activity in the brain)

Problems with the different forms of Developmental Research

Problems with observation:
-Time intensive
-observer influence
-observer bias

Problems with structured interview
-innaccurate
-different perceptions

problems with clinical interview
-hard to analysis statistically

Problems with neurological imaging
-very expensive
- hard to not fear kids in tube and using a cap games must be used

Longitudinal vs. Cross-Sectional designs

Longitudinal: follows same group people over time.

Cross sectional: Samples a group from various age groups.

Explain what they are; Advantages and Problems with Longitudinal
and Cross-sectional designs

Advantages of a longitudinal study is we can show a direct development change

Problems with longitudinal study are attrition (drop outs of the study) and logistically very hard must have a large staff since this study is very time consuming.

Advantages with a cross sectional study is the measuring and comparing different age groups.

Problems with a cross sectional study the study results are due to differences between cohorts rather then to developmental change.

Confounding variables: What are they? Can you give an example?

Variable that accounts for a relationship between 2 variable (3rd party)
ex; Coffee drinking and gpa the confounding variable is studying much coffee less sleep means more studying.

Components of true experiments and correlational designs—also how do they
differ?

True experiments must have 3 things
-Manipulation of variables
-random assignment into groups

Correlation:shows a consistent relationship between two variables correlation does not equal causation.

These both differ because manipulaion of varibales is needed to assign different amounts
in the coffee drink and gpa example different does of coffee.Randoms assignment of participants is also needed.

Infant Skills
Reflexes: Names; When and why are they present/absent?

Moro baby feels like she is falling so they reach out

Palmaer grasp: touch their palm the immediately grasp and Dont let go the surviving purpose laying foundation for early grasping and its thought to b encourage love to care givers

Rooting touching the sides of (baby, cheek they get ri ready d to suck

withdrawal to discomfort bring arm. and Less to body

Stepping: Holding newborn babies like they are trying to walk

swimming: babies put in water they Can make swimming motions kicking Legs and moving arms.

Infant Skills:
What skills do infants have from birth? How do these prepare them
for life? Why are these skills adaptive?

Moro baby feels like she is falling so they reach out

Palmaer grasp: touch their palm the immediately grasp and Dont let go the surviving purpose laying foundation for early grasping and its thought to b encourage love to care givers

Rooting touching the sides of (baby, cheek they get ready to suck for mothers breast milk

withdrawal to discomfort bring arm. and Less to body pain reflex to catch shield them selves


Stepping: Holding newborn babies like they are trying to walk

swimming: babies put in water they Can make swimming motions kicking Legs and moving arms. Being in liquid in the womb

How can newborns imitate adults?

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Classical Conditioning:

Know the examples and labels covered in lecture
and the text (pg. 140)

Any Stimulus Can Ellict different responses unless conditioned

Text pg.146: What are mirror neurons and what role do they play in infant
development?

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Text pg. 138: What is the NBAS?

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Physical Development: Neurological Development

At birth 30% of adult weight
age 2: 70%
age 6 : 90%

The growth is due to growth in our synapses and myelination

Components of the brain: Neurons, Synapses, Myelin

Neurons
-delevolp prenatally
-more then we need
-new neurons can be created

Synapses:gap in between neurons where neurotransster get sent (Connections between neurons)

Synaptic pruning: unused connections are detroyed
-based on environment
-A healthy process brain becomes more efficient

Myelination: Process of putting the sheath on the axon of the neuron
-makes infromation transfer faster
-axons of neurons govern basic process are myelinated first now basic processes can become complex processes

Cerebral Cortex

Outer parts of the brain

responsble for higher order processes
last to stop growing
more affected by environmental processes

makes up to 85% of the brains weight (frontal,temporal and parietal lobe)

Lateralization

Assignment of task to a specfic side

left and right hemispheres

task assigned to one hemisphere

left hemisphere controls right side of the body (linguistic skill and positive emotions)

right hemisphere controls left side of the body (spatial abilites, negative emotions)

Plasticity

In childhood laterialization not complete yet

chilldren recover well from brain injuries

other parts take responsibility for damaged parts
ex:crowding effect
since there is less brain matter available still able to perform basic things.

Experience-Expectant and
Experience-Dependent Growth

Experience-expectant growth: neurological growth that humans are programmed to have

o Specific environmental experiences trigger this growth

o Critical Periods: a developmental window of opportunity. We are prime during specific times of our life that certain things need to happen in order for us to stay on the course of learning developmentally

 Ex: language development
• genie




Experience-dependent growth: _ extra neurological growth_that happens to help develop _extra abilities_

o Not required for _healthy functioning_

o Example: musicians and athletics

Support for the Primacy of Infancy

• Experience-expectant growth: neurological growth that humans are programmed to have

o Specific environmental experiences trigger this growth

o Critical Periods: a developmental window of opportunity. We are prime during specific times of our life that certain things need to happen in order for us to stay on the course of learning developmentally

 Ex: language development
• genie

• Importance of _early intervention: intervention with younger children often more successful

o Abecedarian Project: intervene early in children in poor conditions by providing them with family support, tutors and nutritional supplements. The children that were exposed really early on to this had the best outcomes of it in life

o Autism: the early we are to identify a child with autism the more functional they are later in life


• Brain development during infancy
o Environmental stimulation early in life prevents excessive synaptic pruning

o Brain plasticity

Motor Development: The 2 trends (know the names!), Impact on other
areas of development

o Cephalocaudal: motor skills are developed from head to toe
o Head--- trunk--- legs/feet
 An infant can raise its head before he can twist his body or move his legs and feet really well




 One exception
 The kids can reach better with their feet than with their legs. So it is easy for them to control something that doenst move as easily



o Proximodistal: motor skills are developed _______from center outward______________
 Trunk--- arms-- fingers

Four factors involved in the development of motor skills

o Central nervous system development

o Body's __movement capcity _____________________


o Child's ___goals motivation to play with toys for example_________


 Examples?
kids crawling to get to toys

o Environmental __support_____________


 Example
incentives from caregiver

Text pg. 148: Ages for rolling over, crawling, and walking

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Trends and achievements in reaching / grasping

o Prereaching
Drops out at 7 weeks

Flaining arms


o Independent reaching
Baby reaching out

3 to 4 months


o Ulnar grasp
3 to 4 months bring fingers to palms


o Pincer grasp
12 months

grabbing and using thumbs

Prenatal Senses: When do they develop? Do they have preferences?

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Major milestones & ages (i.e., when can follow with eyes? When
have 20/20 vision? Etc.)

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What are the ways that we study prenatal perceptual development?

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SARA apparatus experiment

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Does music affect a fetus? How? What are the positives?
Negatives? Make sure can explain them too.

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Voice preferences (for mothers and fathers)

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Infant Senses: How developed are they at birth? Preferences at birth.

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Major milestones & ages for hearing and vision.

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How well can a baby hear?

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Visual Cliff: What does this experiment tell us about depth perception?

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What is habituation?

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How are habituation studies conducted? How do we know that
infants can tell the difference?

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What is the habituation rate?

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Text pg. 163-164: Face Perception

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What preferences do infants have?

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DeCasper & Fifer (1980):
Major findings, general methodology used, strengths of the study, and
implications of the findings.

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Support for the Myth of the First 3 Years

• Lack of _long term__ effects

o Abecedarian Project: those experiences start taking over and shaping who you are going to become

• Brain development in adulthood
• Synaptic formation is _genetically determined_
• Brain still has some placticity
o Ex: stroke patients: some are still able to gain control of their body movement again as the other side of the brain begins to take responsibility of those functions

Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

a test developed to assess the behavior of a newborn infant in terms of reflexes, muscle tone, state changes,responsiveness to physical and social stimuli

Mirror Neuron

a neuron that becomes active when a motor action is carried out and when another organism is observed carrying out the same action

SARA apparatus experiment

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