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Dawes Act of 1887

attempt to "americanize" the indians giving each tribe 160 acres; after 25 years this property would become theirs (if they were good little whites) and they would become an american citizen

collectivism

the political principle of centralized social and economic control, esp. of all means of production

the 49ers

one of the peoples who migrated to California in search of riches after gold was discovered there in 1848

sitting bull

a chief of the Sioux;In the course of the resistance occurred the Native American victory on the Little Bighorn, where George Armstrong Custer and his men were defeated and killed on June 25, 1876.

Comstock Lode

The Comstock Lode was the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range. After the discovery was made public in 1859, prospectors rushed to the area and scrambled to stake their claims. Mining camps soon thrived in the vicinity, which became bustling centers of fabulous wealth.

Homestead Act of 1862

Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30 - instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm, turned out to be a cruel hoax because the land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo'd or failed until "dry farming" took root on the plains , then wheat, then massive irrigation projects

Alfred T. Mahan

naval officer who published "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance

Granger Laws

The Granger laws were a series of laws passed in western states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain elevator and railroad freight rates and rebates and to address long- and short-haul discrimination and other railroad abuses against farmers.

The Long Drive

The Long Drives took place in the 1880's in the Western plain states - Cattle ranchers needed a way to easily transport their cattle to eastern cities - Cowboys would round up a lot of cattle and "drive" them to areas near railroad stations - Most of these drives went from southern Texas up to Kansas.

Oliver Kelley

Kelly was the National Grange of the Patron's of Husbandry's leading spirit. The Grange's primary objectives were to stimulate the minds of the farm people by social, educational, and fraternal activities.

Patrons of Husbandry

The Patrons of Husbandry was a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.

William Hope Harvey

wrote a pamphlet about the free coinage of silver, also known as "coin" Harvey

Eugene V. Debs

led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union

Pullman strike

This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.

rugged individualism

The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal.

Mary Elizabeth Lease

speaker for populist party; She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.

Populists/James B. Weaver

He was a general during the Civil War. He was chosen as the presidential candidate of the Populist party, Populists were new political party formed by mostly frustrated farmers attacking financial issues

Williams Jennings Bryan

great orator (Cross of Gold Speech), presidential nominee who lost to McKinley

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

James G. Blaine

a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland

Foraker act

The Foraker Act, officially the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had been newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War

John Hay

Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal

Gentlemen's Agreement

limited japanese immigration to u.s.

Richard Olney

Began as a leading corporate lawyer who noted that the Interstate Commerce Act could be used by the railroads. He became Attorney General and helped to stop the Pullman Strike. He later bacame the Secretary of State under President Cleveland. He declared to the British that by trying to dominate Venezuela they were violating the Monroe Doctrine. U.S. mediated the Veneauelan boundary dispute.

Panama Canal

The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.

Big Stick Policy

Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen

Commodore Dewey

Was an admiral of the United States Navy, where he was best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He also was the only person in the history of the United States to attain the rank of 'Admiral of the Navy'

Anti-Imperialist League

group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism

Rough Riders

The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixture of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.

Sioux wars

The Sioux Wars lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. very bloody

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble

Apache

Native American-Indian tribe; 1870's; group from Arizona and New Mexico led by Geronimo; were difficult to control

Farmer's Alliance

This was the first "national" organization of the farmers, which led to the creation of the Populist party. The Farmers' Alliance sponsored social gatherings, were active in politics, organized cooperatives, and fought against the dominance of the railroads and manufacturers.

Geronimo

Geronimo, the leader of the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man, who was trying to force the Apaches off of their land. Geronimo had an enormous hatred for the whites.

Chief Joseph

chief of the Nez Perce Indians of Idaho. People wanting gold trespassed on their beaver river. To avoid war, and save his people Chief Joseph tried retreating to Canada with his people.

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