What does that ^^^ mean?
The grow from head to toe, center to periphery (how they obtain motor skills)
Why are infants predisposed to respiratory illness?
close proximity of trachea to the bronchi, short and straight eustachian tube, immunoglobulin A (IgA) is not produced
They develop a _____ _________. HR increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration.
The liver has a decreased capacity for ____________ and a high risk for _________.
Peripheral capillaries constrict in cold temperatures to conserve core body temp and avoid heat loss from _________.
Fine motor development-
Transfer objects btwn hands:
Remove objects from container:
Build tower of 2 blocks:
Creeping with belly off floor by...
9 months. Can also pull themselves up by holding onto furniture but cant get back down
What do infants trust?
their self, others, and the world; feeding, comfort, stimulation and caring needs; sense of self; physical comfort and security; feel empowered in unfamiliar and unknown situations
Mistrust is caused by...
failure to learn delayed gratification; too much or too little frustation; ability to control their environment- parents meet needs prior to infants signals, prolonged amount of time after infants signal leads to constant frustation causing them to mistrust others
Three achievements of cognitive development?
Separation- separate themselves from other obejcts and other people; Object permanence by 9-10 months; use of symbols
Development of body image: Realize that parts of their body are useful. Receive satisfaction when...
they smile and someone smiles back at them
By 1 year, they have ___-___ words with meaning. If this is delayed a _________ _________ should be completed.
3-5; hearing screening
When should solid foods be introduced?
4-6 months of age; infant cereal at 4-18 months; iron; introduce foods at intervals of 4-7 days to allow for identification of allergies; at 1 year can eat well cooked table food
To ease pain of immunizations, be sure to use appropriate size needles. What can be given to reduce pain?
EMLA (lidocaine-prilocaine) 1 hour; Vapocoolant spray 15 seconds; Oral sucrose solution on pacifier for neonates
What is VAERS?
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - to report any adverse reactions after administration of any vaccine
Injury Prevention: Aspirtaion of foreign objects-
food (hot dogs, popcorn, candy, nuts, and grapes), baby powder
Other common causes of injury:
MVA (backing up in driveway, 1-9 years old), falls, poisoning, burns, drowning