Ch. 21: Fungi

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structure, methods of reproduction

Fungi are classified according to their ________ and ________

zygomycota

The common molds belong to the phylum ________.

zygospore

A resting spore that contains a zygote is called a ________.

Rhizopus stolonifer

The scientific name for black bread mold is ________ ________

rhizoids

Rootlike hypae in the bread mold are ________ .

stolons

Stem like hypae in bread mold are ________ .

Ascomycota

Sac fungi belong to the phylum ________ .

conidia

During asexual reproduction, sac fungi form tiny spores are called ________ .

yeast

The only unicellular fungi are ________ .

saccharomyces

The genus name for the yeast used backing is ________ .

alcholoic

Yeast grow rapidly by ________ fermentation.

co2, alcohol

Alcoholic fermentation produces ________ and ________ .

basidiomycota

The club fungi belong to the phylum ________ .

basidiumm

The spore-bearing structure of a club fungus is called ________ .

mushrooms

The most common club fungi are ________ .

secondary

The fruiting body of a mushroom is made of ________ mycelium.

piosonious

Many club fungi are ________.

Deuteromycota

The imperfect fungi belong to the phylum ________ .

sexual

Researchers have never observed ________ reproduction in deuteromycetes.

ascomycetes, zygomyocetes

Some imperfect fungi resemble ________ and ________ .

penicillum

The best known imperfect fungi is ________, which is used to produce antibiotics.

ascus

The phylum ascomycota is named for the ________, a reproductive structure that contains spores.

eukaryotic

Fungi are ________ heterotrophs that have cell walls

chitin

Their walls contain ________, a complex carbohydrate

multicellular

All fungi are ________ except yeast

hyphae

Fungi are made up of thin filaments called ________

one

Each hypahe is only ________ cell thick

cross walls

Some hyphae lack ________ and contain many nuclei

mycellium

The bodies of a muticellular fungi are composed of many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called ________

mycelium

The ________ permits a large surface area to come in contact with the food source through which it grows

sexually and asexually

Many fungi reproduce ________ ___ ________

asexual

________ reproduction occurs when hyphae break off to grow on their own

sporangia

Some fungi produce spores, which scatter and grow in some fungi spores are produced in structures called ________

sporangiophores

Sporangia are at the tips of specialized hyphae called ________

sexual reproduction

________ incolves 2 mating types

hyphae

________ of oppostite mating types meet and fuse bringing "+" and "-" nuceli together in one cell

zygote

After growth and development, the nuclei forms a diploid nucleus

zygote

The zygote enter meiosis and produce haploid spores

spores

Zygote ________ are capable of growing into new organism

zygomycetes

Familiar molds that grow on meat, cheese, and bread are called ________

zygospore

Zygomycetes have a life cycle that includes a ________

zygospore

A ________ is a resting spore that contains zygotes fromed during the sexual phase of the mold's life cycle

black bread mold

The common name for rhizopus stoinifer is ________ ________ ________

gametangia

Hyphae from different mating types fuse and produce gamete-forming structures called ________

zygospores

Zygotes develop into thick-walled ________

Basidomycota

The phlyum of club fungi

reproduction

The phylum Basidomycota, or club fungi, gets its name from its clublike structure of a specialized ________

basidium

The spore-bearing structure is called ________

ascomycota

the phylum of sac fungi

sac funi

ex: cup fungus, morers, truffles, yeast

yeast

only unicelluar fungus

yeast

reproduce asexually by budding

co2 and alcohol

alcoholic fermentation produces ________ and ________

deutermycota

the phylum of the imperfect fungi

sexual phase

Imperfect fungi or deutermycota are fungi that cannot be placed in other phyla because researchers have never been able to observe a ________ ________ in their life cycle

penicillium

A well-known genera of the imperfect fungi

penicillin

Pencillium notatum is a mold that is the source of the antibiotic

230

The oldest known fungi are ________ million years old

saprobes

Many fungi are ________, which are organisms that obtain energy from decaying organic matter

parasites

Some are ________, which harm other organisms while living directly on or within them

symbionts

other fungi are ________ that live in close and mutally beneficial association with other species

decompose

the main role of fungi in natural ecosystems is to ________

lichen

symbiotic association between a fungua and a photosynthetic organism

chitin

the cell walls of fungi are made up of ________

absorbing food

fungi feed by ________ ________

parasites

Some fungi are ________, aborbing nutrience from other organisms

multicellular

except for yeast all fungi are ________

hyphae

fungi are made up of tiny filaments called ________

mycelium

the bodies of fungi are made up of many hyphae tangled together in mass called ________

fruiting bodies

the reproductive structures of a fungus is a ________ ________

ring

when new mushrooms sprout at the edges of mycelium a ________ is produced

hyphae

asexual reproduction occurs when ________ break off

spores

some fungi can also reproduce by scattering ________

sporangia

spores are produced in structures called ________

sporangiospore

specialized hyphae that hold sporangia are called ________

two different

fungi reproduce sexually when ____ ________ mating types come together

gametangium

When a plus and a minus mating type meet each hyphae forms a ________

zygotes

Two gametangia join to form a ________

rotting meat

Some fungi are specialized to attract animals and disperse their spores by smelling like ________ ________

eukaryotic

Which term describes the cell of fungi: prokaryotic, protistlike, eukaryotic, phototrophic

heterotrophic

Which terms best desribes how fungi obtain energy: phototrophic, chemotrophic, autotrophic, heterotrophic?

chitin

fungi have cell walls composed of ________

mycelium

The body of a multicellular fungus is composef of a mass of hyphae called a ________

sporangium

Structure in fungi that contains spores

ascus

reproductive structure in ascomycetes in which two nuclie of different mating types fuse

mycelium

many hyphae tangled together in a thick mass

fruiting bodies

structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium

sporangiophore

specialized hyphae where sporgangia are found

conidium

tiny fungal spore that forms at the tips of specialized hyphae in ascomycetes

fermentation

During the process of ________ energy is released

sporangia

________ are saclike structures that produce many spores

basidium

Club fungi produce spores on a sac called a ________

hyphae

Bread mold produces masses of threadlike structures called ________

budding

________ is a type of assexual reproduction in which an outgrowth from the parent organism forms a new organism

ascus

Sac fungi are fungi that produce spores inside an ________

budding

Yeast cells may reproduce by forming spores or by ________

absorption

A sporangium fungus obtains food by ________

mushrooms

Club fungi include puffballs, bracken fungi, and ________

spores and zygospores

Sporangium fungi reproduce by ________ and ________

chlorophyll

Unlike plants, a fungus does not have ________

molds

Which of the following helpful fungi is used to flavor cheese?

four

Each basidium will produce how many spores

gills

the basidia are found on what part of the mushroom?

mycelium

masses of hyphae are called ________

fermentation

Another name for anaerobic respiration in fungi is called

mycologist

A person who studies fungi is called a ________

chitin

the cell walls of fungi are made of ________

chitin

The cell walls of fungi are made up of a complex carbohydrate called ________

true

true or false? some fungi are parasites

yeast

which group of fungi are not multicellular?

hyphae

multicellular fungi that are composed of tiny filaments

one cell thick

how thick is each hyphae? ____ ____ _______

cross walls

IN some fungi, what divides the hyphae into cells containing one or two nuclei?

mycelium

many hyphae tangeled together that compose the bodies of multicellular fungi

false

true or false? most fungi can only reproduce sexually

sporangia

In some fungi, spores are produced in structures called ________

sporangiophore

Where are sporgangia found in a fungus? ________

mating types

sexual reproduction in fungi usually involved two different _________ _______

gametangia

structure that forms gametes

zygospore

The resting spores formed during the sexual phase of the mold's life cycle is called ________

black bread mold

What is the common name for rhizopus stolonifer?

rhizoids

rootlike hyphae that penetrate bread

stolons

stemlike hyphae that runs along the bread

sporgangium

hyphae that push up into air and form sporangia at their tips

gametangia

Two hyphae from different mating types come together, forming ________

zygospore

haploid gametes from the mating types fuse to form diploid zygotes which make up a single

meiosis

The zygospore eventually germinates, and ________ emerges

haploid spores

The sporangium reproduces asexually by releasing ________ ________

acus

structure formed within the fruiting body

ascomycota

The common yeast used for baking and brewking are memberss of the genus ________

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