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The free-flowing blood located in the middle of a blood vessel is called _______.
a. gradient flow
b. lumen flow
c. laminar flow
d. friction flow

c. laminar flow

The flow rate of a liquid is _______.
a. directly proportional to the pressure gradient and the resistance
b.inversely proportional to the pressure gradient
c. directly proportional to the resistance
d. directly proportional to the pressure gradient

d. directly proportional to the pressure gradient

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with the corresponding equipment used in this experiment?
a. flow tube between the beakers - an artery
b. left beaker - blood flowing from the heart
c. All of the above are matched correctly.

c. All of the above are matched correctly.

Which of the following has the greatest effect on peripheral resistance?
a. blood vessel diameter
b. viscosity, blood vessel length and blood vessel diameter affect peripheral resistance equally
c. viscosity
d. blood vessel length

a. blood vessel diameter

Which of the following would increase cardiac output to the greatest extent?

a. decreased heart rate and increased stroke volume
b. increased heart rate and decreased stroke volume
c. decreased heart rate and decreased stroke volume
d. increased heart rate and increased stroke volume

d. increased heart rate and increased stroke volume

Which of the following would increase heart rate?
a. epinephrine and norepinephrine
b. acetylcholine
c. decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
d. increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system

a. epinephrine and norepinephrine

How would an increase in the sympathetic nervous system increase stroke volume?

a.increased end diastolic volume
b. increased contractility
c. increased end systolic volume
d. decreased end diastolic volume

b. increased contractility

By what mechanism would an increase in venous return increase stroke volume?

a. decreased end diastolic volume
b. increased end systolic volume c.increased end diastolic volume
d. increased contractility

c.increased end diastolic volume

How would a decrease in blood volume affect both stroke volume and cardiac output?
a. decreased stroke volume and no change in cardiac output
b. no change in stroke volume and decreased cardiac output
c. increased stroke volume and increased cardiac output
d. decreased stroke volume and decreased cardiac output

a. decreased stroke volume and no change in cardiac output

In the capillaries, hydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by __________.

a. proteins in the blood
b. blood pressure

b. blood pressure

The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the __________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the __________.

a.interstitial fluid; capillary
b. capillary; interstitial fluid

b. capillary; interstitial fluid

Which of the following would reflect the typical net hydrostatic pressure (HP) at the arterial end of the capillary?

a.1 mm Hg
b. 34 mm Hg
c. 12 mm Hg

b. 34 mm Hg

The colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary is caused by __________.

a. blood pressure
b. proteins in the blood

b. proteins in the blood

Which net pressure draws fluid into the capillary?

a. net hydrostatic pressure
b. net osmotic pressure

b. net osmotic pressure

Reabsorption of fluid into the capillary takes place at the arterial end or venous end of the capillary?

a. venous
b. arterial

a. venous

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?

a.The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
b. cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata
c. carotid sinus and aortic arch

c. carotid sinus and aortic arch

If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?

a. increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity
b. increased PNS and SNS activity
c. decreased PNS activity and increased SNS activity

a. increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity

Which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles?

a. decreased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
b. increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
c. decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
d. increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

c. decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?

a. vasodilation of arteries
b. a decrease in blood pressure
c.a decrease in cardiac output
d. an increase heart rate and contractility

d. an increase heart rate and contractility

A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?

a. a decrease in heart rate
b. vasodilation of arterioles
c. a decrease in cardiac output
d. an increase in heart contractility

d. an increase in heart contractility

How does the body decrease the blood vessel radius?
a. valve closure
b. vasodilation
c. cardiac muscle contraction
d. vasoconstriction

d. vasoconstriction

When the radius of the flow tube is decreased, the _______.
a. pressure gradient decreases
b. friction decreases
c. fluid flow rate decreases
d. fluid flow rate and the pressure gradient decrease
e. fluid flow rate increases

c. fluid flow rate decreases

During exercise, we might expect blood vessels in the skeletal muscle to be somewhat _______________ and the blood vessels in the digestive organs to be somewhat ____________.
a. constricted, constricted
b. dilated, dilated
c. constricted, dilated
d. dilated, constricted

d. dilated, constricted

Laminar flow of the blood is achieved through _______.
a. vasoconstriction and smooth muscle contraction
b. vasoconstriction
c. smooth muscle contraction
d. vasodilation

d. vasodilation

Arteries that are closer to the heart _______.
a. have more elastic tissue and must be able to withstand pressure changes
b. have less elastic tissue and must be able to withstand pressure changes
c. have more elastic tissue
d. have less elastic tissue
e. must be able to withstand pressure changes

a. have more elastic tissue and must be able to withstand pressure changes

In the cardiovascular system, the pressure gradient is provided by _______.
a. the force of contraction of the heart and peripheral resistance in the blood vessels
b. osmosis
c. the force of contraction of the heart
d. peripheral resistance in the blood vessels

a. the force of contraction of the heart and peripheral resistance in the blood vessels

Blood flow is _______.
a. inversely proportional to cardiac output
b. not proportional to the pressure gradient
c. inversely proportional to the pressure gradient
d. directly proportional to the pressure gradient

d. directly proportional to the pressure gradient

Which of the following result(s) in an increase in fluid flow rate?
a. increase in radius diameter
b. decrease in radius diameter
c. increase in pressure
d. increase in pressure and decrease in radius diameter
e. increase in pressure and increase in radius diameter

e. increase in pressure and increase in radius diameter

Describe the plot of pressure versus flow rate.
a. It was curved, and the flow rate decreased with increased pressure.
b. It was linear, and the flow rate decreased with increased pressure.
c. It was curved, and the flow rate increased with increased pressure.
d. It was linear, and the flow rate increased with increased pressure.

d. It was linear, and the flow rate increased with increased pressure.

In this activity, we changed the pressure delivered by the left beaker. This is analogous to _______.
a. increasing the force of contraction of the heart
b. decreasing the radius of the blood vessel
c. increasing the viscosity of the blood
d. increasing the length of the flow tube

a. increasing the force of contraction of the heart

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