CH 3: 1. Describe the general characteristics of a composite cell.

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Cell Membrane

The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.

Outermost Perimeter

composed mainly of lipids and proteins, with some carbohydrate.

Selectively Permeable

regulates movement of substances into and out of the cell.

Fluid Mosaic Model

movable fluid composition of many components modified in many cases for communication and absorption.

Cytoplasm

everything enclosed by the plasma membrane except nucleus; contains organelles and skeletal components of cells.

Organelles

Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

long membranous, interconnected channels serving as transport system, skeletal support, and protein and lipid synthesis.

Rough ER

covered with ribosomes.

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes.

Ribosomes

found on ER and free in cytoplasm

Golgi Apparatus

stack of flattened membranous sacs; refines, packages, and delivers proteins manufactured in ER ribosomes to cell membranes or organelles.

Mitochondria

elongated, fluid-filled sacs containing their own DNA.

Lysosomes

tiny, membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes.

Vesicles

membranous sacs varying in size and contents; many contain different substances for import and export.

Peroxisomes

membranous sacs containing enzymes which catalyze a variety of biochemical reactions; most abundant in liver and kidneys.

Centrosome

consists of centrioles which form the spindle fibers which function in cell division.

Cilia

move mucus over surface of respiratory tract.

Flagella

enable sperm to swim to ovum waiting in oviduct.

Microfilaments

are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells.

Microtubules

A microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex structures.

Nucleus

control center of the cell. large, usually spherical centrally-located structure. enclosed within double-layered nuclear envelope. nuclear pores allow substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm.

Nucleolus

small dense body largely composed of RNA and protein.

Chromatin

loosely coiled fibers in nucleoplasm; diffuse chromosomes.

Nucleoplasm

fluid within nucleus.

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