Principle stating that scientists should favor the hypothesis that requires the fewest assumptions.
Scientist who came up with method of naming organisms with a 2 part scientific name called binomial nomenclature. Father of taxonomy
Genetic change in a population of organisms; in general, evolution leads to progressive change from simple to complex.
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
The presence in a population of more than one allele of a gene at a frequency greater than that of newly arising mutations.
No mutation takes place.
No genes are transferred to or from other sources (no immigration or emigration takes place).
Random mating is occurring.
The population size is very large.
No selection occurs.
A mathematical description of the fact that allele and genotype frequencies remain constant in a random-mating population in the absence of inbreeding
A type of nonrandom mating in which phenotypically similar individuals mate more frequently.
A type of nonrandom mating in which phenotypically different individuals mate more frequently.
The effect by which rare alleles and combinations of alleles may be enhanced in new populations.
A loss of genetic variability that occurs when a population is reduced drastically in size.
The process by which some organisms leave more offspring than competing ones, and their genetic traits tend to appear in greater proportions among members of succeeding generations
The independent development of similar structures in organisms that are not directly related; often found in organisms living in similar environments.
The evolutionary history of an organism, including which species are closely related and in what order related species evolved; often represented in the form
A taxonomic technique used for creating hierarchies of organisms that represent true phylogenetic relationship and descent.
shared derived character
In cladistics, character states that are shared by species and that are different from the ancestral character state.
In cladistics, a shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that state; may result from convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal. The wings of birds and of bats, which are convergent structures, are examples.
In phylogenetic classification, a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group, but not all its descendants.