James I issues new charter dividing North America b/t London Group in the south and the Plymouth merchants in the north. Charter promised full rights of Englishmen, an end to strict rule and share in self-gov't.
Jamestown founded. London Co. headed for VA w/ 144 men aboard three ships (GODS) Godspeed, Discovery and Susan Constant. Only 104 men survived. Site was low and swampy (failed for 17 years).
John Smith (world traveler-27 yr. old) took leadership promoted work and order, raids on Indian villages. Only 38 of orignial 144 survived. No women-no permanent stake. Disease-malaria.
"Starving time". 600 passangers to VA. One ship lost at sea, one aground on Bermuda isle. Many who arrived succumed to fevers. Local indians kept them barracaded in. Lived off dogs,..corpses. 60 people left when aground vessel arrived. All left. Ran into another supply vessel w/ Governor Lord De La Warr. Establish headright system. (50 acres) encourages immigration.
Pocohontas married John Rolf and goes to visit England. Her brother kills John along with 347 others. Twenty years later Powhatan Indians defeated. London Co. defunct. James I revoked charter--til 1776. During VA 17 years 8,500 white settlers arrived--80% died.
First African workers in Virginia. 20 some African negroes. Coloniest thought they were indentured servants.
VA Co. sent ironworkers and craftsman with 100 Englishwoman for wives to Virginia Colony.Virginia House of Burgessess meets for the first time. Establishes representative gov't.
Pilgrims founded Plymouth colony. Puritan Separatists. Set sail on the Mayflower, drew up the Mayflower Compact and gov'n themselves. 1/2 colonists died the first winter.People were poor but content.
Spain went to war with the Netherlands. English swooped in and began colonizing.(Antigua, St. Kitts, Jamaica and Barbados). Spain only colonized on the larger islands (Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico). Tobacco and cotton failed--sugar succeeded.
Powhatan Indians attack Virginia
Dutch settle in Manhattan
Charles I began ruling as Monarch in England. He dismissed the Parliament.
King Charles I dissolved Parliament. (this is King James' son who was also repressive toward Puritans).
Puritans establish Massachusetts Bay Colony. 17 ships set sail with 1,000 people. Largest single migration. Gov'n John Winthrop. Create a refuge for Puritans. Charter meant they were not responsible to any company officials in England.
Charles I began ruling, Dismissed Parliament, Parliament returned, English Civil War began; Charles beheaded; New "protector" died; Charles II comes back and seizes throne. This is called the Restoration Period.
Maryland founded. Origins diff. than VA. Originally a refuge for Catholics, but Calvert died while negotiating with the King Lord Baltimore for charter. His son Cecilius (second Lord Baltimore) received charter and made his brother Leonard Calvert as gov'n. Sent two ship, Ark & Dove. village of St. Mary's. The most religious tolerant.
Roger Williams Founded Rhode Island. Lived in Salem, expressed religious and political dissent. Should separate from England. Land they occupied belonged to Indians. He escaped before deportation. Refuged with Narragansett tribe. Created Providence. Rhode Island is the only colony which all faiths could worship.
Pequot War. Broke out between English settlers in CT valley and Pequot Indians. Natives almost wiped out. Bloodiest battle b/t whites and Indians. White's call in King Philips War(Indian Chief).Whites and Mohawks ambushed Metacomet and killed him. Fragile alliance disbanded. Earlier exchange of Flintlock rifle and Matchlock rifle (heavy).
Anne Hutchinson felt that one could talk directly to God. Challenged assumptions about role of women in Puritan society. Convicted of heresy and sedition, banished with her family. Later killed in Indian uprising.
English Civil War broke out. King Charles I antagonized the parliament members by dismissing them twice in two years. They organized a military force --Cavaliers (support the king) and the Roundheads (forces of Parliament largly Puritan). Roundheads won..king beheaded.
England began trying to regulate colonial trade by Pariliament passing laws to keep Dutch ships out of the colonies. Navigation acts passed later (1660-1673).
1660, 1663, 1673
Navigation Acts --Only trade with English ships and items exported only to England (tobacco); European goods must go through England to get taxed before the colonies receive; Coastal trading amongst colonies will be subject to taxes and custom officials will be appointed.
English captures New Netherlands. Charles I granted his brother James(Duke of York) the land b/t CT and DE rivers. English navy extracted surrender of Dutch colony. Renamed it New York. Living there were Dutch, Scandinavians, Germans, French and Africans(slaves) and Indians. No provision for representative assemblies.Political power b/t Wealthy.
Charleston founded. Charles II awarded 8 proprietors joint title. Religious freedom for all Christian faiths. Created representative assembly. Hoped to attract existing settlers and save $$. Anthony Ashley Cooper didn't give up and aided by John Locke drew up the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina. Divided colonies into equal size/equal parcels. Est. social hierarchy. North (backwoods) South (fertile land/good harbor). Headright system est.
Dutch recover lose from England but soon lose it permanently.
NJ founded. James (Duke of York) gave part of his charter to John Berkley and Sir George Carteret. Carteret named it NJ. Enormous ethnic and religious diversity but no class division.
King Philips War
Lord of Trades was the new body to make recommendations for imperial reform. He moved to increase control over MA and strip it of authority of NH. Chartered separate colony. Because of their defiance to Navigation Acts he revoked their charter in 1684.
Bacon's Rebellion:The autocratic rule of Berkley,Revealed rival elites in VA; Demonstrated instability of large population of non-landowners; continued struggle for white and Indian spheres of influence. Bacon was a westerland farmer.Nathaniel Bacon angered about hold the line of settlement to avoid Indian conflicts.
PA chartered. Society of Friends, first leader George Fox & Margaret Fell. Quakers rejected predestination concept and original sin. Pacifists. Colony was best know and cosmopolitan of all colonies. Franklin named Philadelphia (city of brotherly love).
Defiance of Navigation Acts by MA lead to charter getting revoked.
Dominion of New England
James II popular support vanished, daughter Mary (protestant) and husband William of Orange appt. ruler of Netherlands to assume the throne. Considered a bloodless coup. Touched off revolutions in several colonies (bloody ones); representative assemblies revived; colonial unification abandoned. Called the Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution led to Maryland becoming a separate colony. The new gov't increase potential authority.
Ben Franklin signed a Charter of Liberties to establish representative assembly--limited authority of proprietor.
Spanish began to fortify borders by est. forts (San Antonio area). Greatest threat was the French near Texas.
Georgia chartered. Granted General James Oglethorpe and his fellow trustees control of GA. Excluded Africans(free or slave); Settlement became more compact and easier to defend. Only a few debtors release from prison. Brought hundreds of tradesman England, Switzerland, Germany, Scotland, Jews. Grew slower that other colonies.
Restoration Period --resumption of colonization in America. four additional colonies: Carolinas, NY, NJ and PA