BIO 122 Mini exam 1

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Which group was not described in Woese's tree of life analysis?
Archaea
Prokarya
Eukarya
Bacteria

Prokarya

What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese's tree of life analysis?

Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus
Composition of the cell wall
Number of cells in the organism
Differences in ribosomal RNA sequences

Presence of a membrane bound nucleus

True or false? Data showing that the Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggest that the Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.

True

Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?

A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral population and all of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group has not experienced lateral gene transfer.
A monophyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?
Ribosomal RNA
DNA
Messenger RNA
Ribosome

Ribosomal RNA

What is lateral gene transfer?
Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.
Inheritance of a gene through mitosis
Inheritance of a gene from a parent
Inheritance of a gene through meiosis

Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

Gram-positive bacteria characteristics include...

Appear purple after Gram staining, alcohol rinse does not remove crystal violet, have a thick peptidoglycan layer

Gram-negative bacteria characteristics include...

Have an outer membrane as part of their cell wall structure, alcohol rinse easily removes crystal violet, have a thin peptidoglycan layer, appear pink after Gram staining.

Require energy only from inorganic sources...

autotrophs

Require energy from at least one organic nutrient....

heterotrophs

The prokaryotic cells that built stromatolites are classified as _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

The prokaryotic cells that were the first to add significant quantities of oxygen to Earth's atmosphere are classified as _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

Streptococcus aureus is classified with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

gram-positive bacteria

Organisms that can cause nongonococcal urethritis are classified with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

chlamydias

The chemoheterotroph Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped bacterium classified with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

proteobacteria

Spiral-shaped bacteria are likely to be placed with _____.
proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

spirochetes

According to this phylogenetic tree, which of these pairs of prokaryotic subgroups share the most recent common ancestor?

Euryarchaeota ... Cyanobacteria
Proteobacteria ... Crenarchaeota
Proteobacteria ... Euryarchaeota
Euryarchaeota ... Crenarchaeota
Crenarchaeota ... Cyanobacteria

Euryarchaeota ... Crenarchaeota

What advantage do organisms that reproduce sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?
Their offspring may have more mutations.
Their offspring are bigger and better able to reproduce.
Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.
Their offspring can exist in both haploid and diploid stages.

Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.

Which term describes the fusion of two gametes to form a diploid zygote?
Syngamy
Mitosis
Alternation of generations
Meiosis

Syngamy

Which term describes the multicellular haploid form of a protist that shows alternation of generations?
Gametophyte
Zygote
Sporophyte
Spore

Gametophyte

Which structure mediates the attachment of spores to a surface on which to grow?

Holdfast
Flagella
Sporophyte
Chloroplast

Holdfast

Which of the following statements about Ulva's haploid stage is true?
Gametes of the same mating type fuse to produce a diploid zygote.
Haploid cells produce gametes by meiosis.
The haploid Ulva cells are genetically identical to their diploid parents.
Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.

Haploid cells are produced from meiosis of diploid cells.

How does the haploid form of Ulva "switch" to its diploid form?
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo meiosis and produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
Sporophytes undergo meiosis to produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
Sporophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.

Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.

True or false? Organisms that exhibit alternation of generations reproduce sexually in the diploid stage.

False.

Angiosperms are most closely related to _____.

green algae
gymnosperms
bryophytes
charophyceans
seedless vascular plants

gymnosperms

Which of these was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals?
gymnosperms
bryophytes
seedless vascular plants
angiosperms
charophyceans

gymnosperms

This is an image of a(n) _____.
seedless vascular plant
angiosperm
bryophyte
gymnosperm
charophycean

charophycean

Plants evolved from green algae approximately _____ million years ago.

3,500
475
2,200
130
400

475

_____ are an example of seedless vascular plants.
Pine trees
Mosses
Ferns
Charophyceans
Lilacs

Ferns

The living plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia are the _____.
bryophytes
charophyceans
seedless vascular plants
gymnosperms
angiosperms

bryophytes

Which of these is a male gametophyte?

Pollen grains

In pines, the female gametophyte contains _____, each of which contains a(n) _____.
antheridia ... egg
archegonia ... sperm cell
antheridia ... sperm cell
microsporangia ... egg cell
archegonia ... egg

archegonia ... egg

In pines, an embryo is a(n) _____.
immature female gametophyte
food reserve for the immature sporophyte
immature sporophyte
seed
immature male gametophyte

immature sporophyte

In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the _____.
megaspore
integument
pollen cone
eggs
micropyle

micropyle

Which of these statements is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?
It functions as a haploid food reserve.
It functions as a diploid food reserve.
It develops from the fusion of a microspore and a megaspore.
It functions as a triploid food reserve.
It is the remnant of the pollen tube.

It functions as a haploid food reserve.

Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).

one

In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.

haploid ... meiosis
diploid ... mitosis
diploid ... meiosis
haploid ... mitosis
triploid ... fertilization

haploid...meiosis

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