Gov. officials, companies, businessmen; astronomers, natural scientists, map makers, artists, seamen
Types of people who generally sponsered explorations, and what types of skills those people who went on these explorations generally possessed.
Spain: Regain former power; Russia: Advance country, get involved with world affairs; US: Wanted to expand, wanted land and wealth, trading partners in Asia; England: Find a way through Americas (NW Passage), Trading partners in Asia
Four nations explored in the Pacific NW and what they hoped to gain from these explorations
Spain had claimed the region, John meares built a fort on some secured land. Jose Martinez dispathed to seize ships, but released them immediately (didn't want war). Meares wanted payment for damage, even though he wasn't supposed to be in that region. Bodega y Quadra from Spain, George Vancouver from Britain. Settled this: Spain wouldnt interfere with British interests in region, English wouldn't fish near spanish, both ships could use harbor, island named Quadra and Vancouver's Island.
Know what causedthe Nootka Sound Controversy, how it was resolved, and why it was important to the US
Hudson Bay Company
Founded in 1670 in London, most important company, important outpost was Fort Vancouver, was a corporate monoply from 1818-1846, moved to Fort Victoria when they knew British would lose Oregon
Rocky Mountain Fur Company
Founded in St. Louis in 1822 by William Ashley & Andrew Henry, their mountain men lived rugged lives
First fur company in PNW - British, called Nor'westers, Montreal, Ontario 1780's, loose organiztions to compete with HBC, David Thompson lead trade in 1807, posts by long lakes and rivers, traded with local Indians or traders,
Pacific Fur Company
2nd fur company to arrive in the US, Founder: John Jacob Astor, wanted to establish American influence in region, lost supplies and ship blown up by Tonquin, Sold Astoria to NW company, Established American presence in region, Washington Irving published Astoria in 1836 which made area known to easterners.
mutually agreed place where Mountain Men met up, salaries paid, and party started
lived rugged lives, 11 months in the wild hunting and trapping for Rocky Mountain Fur Company, established US presence in the region, afterwards they became trailblazers and guides
Head of North American operations for the Hudson Bay Company, wanted to expand to the Pacific Northwest, encouraged forts to be self-sufficient
Chief facter at Fort Vancouver (HBC), closest thing to a governor.
Advertised PNW through letters and writings back home, was first (Methodist) missionary in PNW
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
gave publicity to PNW, guided largest wagon train to PNW, Whitman Mission, massacred.
Beaver Fur Hats
Article of clothing enabling the fur trade to become profitable
First religious center on frontier, first 4-yr university (Williamette), encouraged people west
Missionaries accomplishments in the PNW
Headquarters for the entire NW, a social, political, economic center with influence beyond its role as a major trading post.
Importance of Fort Vancouver in the PNW
Established a US presence in the region; after the fur trade they became trailblazers and guides; Jedediah Smith, Joe Meek
Importance of Mountain Men
They were single and could live freely among the Indians, well trained and obedient, trained to handle primitive environments, less shocked by Indians' behavior, used symbols they could recognize, dressed differently
Catholic Missionaries more successful than the Protestant missionaries.
opened the first hospital in Seattle, started a fish packing plant, city named Seattle
David and Arthur Denny
wanted to sell lumber to CA, settled at Alki point, moved to Elliot Bay (deeper)
built first sawmill and was first to use steam power,developed skid row, first mayor of Seattle
Belief that it was the US's destiny to own the west (it was our right), owned CA, OR, and TX and southwest
settled by David and Arthur Denny and John Low in fall of 1851, changes of wind, current, tide made it difficult for ships, steep cliff for bringing timber from above, shallow
David and Arthur Denny moved here, deeper and easier shipping than Alki
Stable nation, most adults born in, population increase to 17 million, NY biggest city, confident that they could achieve anything
Conditions of the US in the 1830's and 1840's that would have enticed people to move to OR
Single person given 320 acres free land if lived there 4 years; married couple got 640 acres if lived there for 4 years.
Terms of the OR Donation Land Act
Indepence and St. Josephs
Taking off towns
Passage through the Rockies, necessity
More people drowned in here than any other river
Early settling destination
Friendships, singing and dancing by the campfire, mail deposited
Good things that happened on the Oregon Trail
Flooding, Disease (cholera), personality conflicts, Accidents
Hardships along the Oregon Trail
15 to 28 weeks
How long it took to cross the Oregon Trail
Great Northern Railroad, Klondike gold rush, relocation/expansion of UW, fire, riot against Chinese.
Key events in Seattle's history