Biology Unit 5 - Traits are Us

32 terms by RoseannNewell 

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Biology Flashcards

Asexual reproduction

process of reproduction involving a single parent

Binary Fission

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells.

Budding

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Chromosome Number

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Abnormalities

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Replication

Process of copying DNA prior to cell division

Dominant traits

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Recessive traits

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Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a particular gene

Homozygous

Having two identical alleles for a particular gene.

Alleles

One of a number of different forms of a gene

Fertilization

Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.

Zygote

Fertilized egg

Gene

Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from parent to offspring.

Mitosis

Part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides.

Meiosis

Process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.

Gametes

Sex cell

Crossing over

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.

Pedigree

Chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations.

Phenotypes

Physical characteristics of an organism

Genetypes

Genetic makeup of an organism

Protein synthesis

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Punnet Square

Diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross.

Genetic cross

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Monohybrid

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RIbosomes

Cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis.

Sex-linked Traits

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Sexual reproduction

Type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism.

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