A major function of hepatocytes is the formation and secretion of which substance?
Hepatocytes (liver cells) generate and secrete bile
Bicarbonate buffers are a component of intestinal juice that are produced where?
in the pancreas
where is hydrochloric acid produced?
parietal cells in the gastric glands of the stomach
pepsinogen is secreted by what type of cells?
chief cells in the gastric glands of the stomach
precursor (zymogen) of pepsin, secreted by chief cells in the stomach
degrades food proteins into peptides
pH affect on hemoglobin and oxygen
increase in pH (alkalosis) causes increase in hemoglobin O2 saturation; decrease in pH (acidosis) decreases hemoglobin O2 saturation
alkalosis affect on hemoglobin O2 sat
increase in pH leads to increase in hemoglobin O2 sat
acidosis affect on hemoglobin O2 sat
decrease in pH leads to decrease in hemoglobin O2 sat
pCO2 affect on pH
increased pCO2 causes decrease in pH
pCO2 affect on hemoglobin O2 sat
pCO2 increase causes decrease in pH (acidosis) which decreases hemoglobin O2 sat
BPG affect on hemoglobin O2 sat
BPG increase causes decrease in bound O2 on hemoglobin
structure that allows communication between the inferior stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine
function of surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells
reduce surface tension for easier expansion during inspiration
surfactant in alveoli decreases ___ ___
contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. (its why objects float on water)
bicarbonate buffers are found in intestinal juice and produced in the ___
bile is secreted by ___
hepatocytes (liver cells)
parietal cells in the stomach secrete ___ ___
chief cells in the stomach secrete ___
yellow or greenish liquid secreted by the liver that aids in absorption and digestion of lipids (fats)
the breakdown of glycogen stores for use when there is insufficient glucose (catabolic reaction)
complex plolysaccharide stored in the liver and in muscles. It's broken down for energy through glycogenolysis when glucose levels are low
two functions of glycogenolysis
1-maintain blood glucose level
2-provide energy during fight-or-flight response
the formation of glycogen from glucose (anabolic reactions)
catabolism of carbs (ie- glucose) by enzymes for the release of energy and pyruvic acid
synthesizing glucose from a non-carbohydrate source such as fats or proteins.
very large vein in the trunk formed by fusion fo the jugular and subclavian veins. It then emties into the Superior Venae Cavae.
the basilic and brachial veins of the upper arm empty into the ___ vein
The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form this vein that runs most of the length of the arm
cephalic vein location
length of lateral arm
3 veins of the neck (two of each)
internal jugular, external jugular and vertebral veins
Which is the first hemostatic event to occur following damage to an arteriole?
Arteriolar smooth muscles contract in vascular spasm
Longest stage of the cardiac cycle?
time the atrioventricular valves are open. Bridges all of ventricular systole and diastole
How does the body respond to increased CO2 in the blood stream?
A loss in the function of gastric chief cells would result in a decreased ability to digest which substance?
gastric chief cells produce ___ which is then converted to pepsin
enzyme that breaks down proteins during digestion
bile salts and pancreatic enzymes digest what substance?
___ is found in some plants and is unable to be digested by humans
starches are digested primarily by ___ and ___ enzymes
salivary and pacreatic enzymes
describe the pressure in the alveoli during normal quiet respiration
The alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration, but greater than atmospheric pressure during expiration.
colloidal suspension of a liquid in another liquid
how do bile salts aid in the digestion of fat?
break down or emulsify fat droplets
triglycerides are digested by the enzyme ___ ___
before enzymes act on fats, they must be emulsified by ___ ___
breaking chemical bonds by adding water. Opposite of dehydration synthesis. catabolic
opposite of hydrolysis. anabolic reacition that joins two molecules by removing water.
the volume ejected from the ventricle into the aorta each minute (HR x SV = CO)
ESV (End Systolic Volume)
blood volume in the ventricle at the end of systole, the contraction phase
EDV (End Diastolic Volume)
blood volume in the ventricle before a contraction (at the end of diasole/relaxation)
amount of blood pumped out of ventricle with one contraction (SV= EDV - ESV)
The force of ventricular contraction ___ when venous return increases
Nondigestible substances move through the sections of the colon in which order?
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
The segments of the colon are, in order:
ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
Where in the cardiovascular system is blood pressure normally the highest?
the systemic circuit
pressure is generally high/low in the pulmonary circuit?
relatively low (high pressure causes edema)
cause of expiration during normal, quiet breathing?
passive recoil of the lungs and chest wall
which is an active process and which is passive inpiration/expiration?
inspiriation is active
expiration is passive
3 phases of gastric secretion
cephalic phase of gastric secretion
begins when you smell, think of or taste food. directed by CNS, prepares stomach to receive food. speeds up production of gastric juices.
gasric phase of secretion
begins with arrival of food in the stomach.
begins when chyme enters small intestines. controls rate of gastric emptying to allow max absoption of nutrients.
The enterogastric reflex specifically inhibits the intestinal phase by stimulating sympathetic activity and secretion of cholecystokinin which, in turn, decrease motility and delay emptying.
stimulates motility of small intestine to accelerate movement
opens ileocecal valve allowing materials to move from small intestine to alrge intestine.
In the cephalic phase, reflexes from the ___-based senses stimulate increased gastric activity.
In the gastric phase, ___ receptors and ___ reactions control gastric activity.
stretch receptors and hormonal reactions
when blood pH decreases does more or less O2 become available for tissues?
more O2 is released from hemoglobin in response to the increased acidity making more O2 available to tissues.
does low blood pH increase or decrease RBC metabolic rates?
acidity increases RBC metabolic rates
is cholesterol soluble in water?
not soluble in water
blood components that carry cholesterol through the blood stream.
blood component that transports metal ions (ie iron) in blood stream
How does the heart react to hyperkalemia?
Potassium's effect on muscle cells causes contractions to become weak and irregular and eventually to stop.
effect of hypercalcemia on the heart
Heart irritability is increased
glycogen conversion to glucose, is this catabolic or anabolic?
___ is primarily water with small amounts of enzymes that initiate the breakdown of carbohydrates
Anemia is a disorder of which blood element?
Anemia is a deficiency in oxygen-carrying red blood cells (erythrocytes)
Leukemia is a disorder of what blood element?
clotting problems and electrolyte imbalances are disorders of what blood element?
thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis are disorders of what blood element?
abnormal decrease in blood platelets
high blood platelet count
cancers of the bone marrow and/or white blood cells
deficiency in oxygen-carrying red blood cells (erythrocytes)
Which blood group will have its erythrocytes agglutinated by either type A plasma or type B plasma?
type AB has both antigen A and antigen B. Thus it will be agglutinated by both anti-A antibody and anti-B antibody.
clumping of cells due to introduction of an antibody
what affect does living at high altitude have on your erythrocytes?
increased erythrocyte production
Which event occurs first after the P wave?
contraction of the atria
The aortic valve opens during the ___ and closes at the end of the ___ ___
opens during QRS, closes at end of T wave
early in ventricular systole, ventricles are contracting isometrically with all valves closed. Pressure is rising but no blood is flowing.
early in diastole, all heart valves are closed, ventricles are relaxing but pressure is still higher than atrial pressure so no blood is flowing into ventricles yet.
cardiovascular control centers such as cardioacceletory and cardioinhibitory centers are located in what part of the brain?
which have relatively more smooth muscle, small arteries or large arteries?
Small arteries are more muscular than large arteries
the largest arteries with elastic walls and few smooth muscle cells are said to be ___ arteries
are valves found in veins or arteries?
veins to prevent backflow