___ is primarily water with small amounts of enzymes that initiate the breakdown of carbohydrates
Anemia is a disorder of which blood element?
Anemia is a deficiency in oxygen-carrying red blood cells (erythrocytes)
The aortic valve opens during the ___ and closes at the end of the ___ ___
opens during QRS, closes at end of T wave
yellow or greenish liquid secreted by the liver that aids in absorption and digestion of lipids (fats)
very large vein in the trunk formed by fusion fo the jugular and subclavian veins. It then emties into the Superior Venae Cavae.
cardiovascular control centers such as cardioacceletory and cardioinhibitory centers are located in what part of the brain?
cephalic phase of gastric secretion
begins when you smell, think of or taste food. directed by CNS, prepares stomach to receive food. speeds up production of gastric juices.
opposite of hydrolysis. anabolic reacition that joins two molecules by removing water.
describe the pressure in the alveoli during normal quiet respiration
The alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration, but greater than atmospheric pressure during expiration.
EDV (End Diastolic Volume)
blood volume in the ventricle before a contraction (at the end of diasole/relaxation)
The enterogastric reflex specifically inhibits the intestinal phase by stimulating sympathetic activity and secretion of cholecystokinin which, in turn, decrease motility and delay emptying.
ESV (End Systolic Volume)
blood volume in the ventricle at the end of systole, the contraction phase
function of surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells
reduce surface tension for easier expansion during inspiration
opens ileocecal valve allowing materials to move from small intestine to alrge intestine.
complex plolysaccharide stored in the liver and in muscles. It's broken down for energy through glycogenolysis when glucose levels are low
the breakdown of glycogen stores for use when there is insufficient glucose (catabolic reaction)
How does the heart react to hyperkalemia?
Potassium's effect on muscle cells causes contractions to become weak and irregular and eventually to stop.
In the cephalic phase, reflexes from the ___-based senses stimulate increased gastric activity.
In the gastric phase, ___ receptors and ___ reactions control gastric activity.
stretch receptors and hormonal reactions
begins when chyme enters small intestines. controls rate of gastric emptying to allow max absoption of nutrients.
early in ventricular systole, ventricles are contracting isometrically with all valves closed. Pressure is rising but no blood is flowing.
early in diastole, all heart valves are closed, ventricles are relaxing but pressure is still higher than atrial pressure so no blood is flowing into ventricles yet.
the largest arteries with elastic walls and few smooth muscle cells are said to be ___ arteries
Longest stage of the cardiac cycle?
time the atrioventricular valves are open. Bridges all of ventricular systole and diastole
A loss in the function of gastric chief cells would result in a decreased ability to digest which substance?
A major function of hepatocytes is the formation and secretion of which substance?
Hepatocytes (liver cells) generate and secrete bile
Nondigestible substances move through the sections of the colon in which order?
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
pCO2 affect on hemoglobin O2 sat
pCO2 increase causes decrease in pH (acidosis) which decreases hemoglobin O2 sat
pH affect on hemoglobin and oxygen
increase in pH (alkalosis) causes increase in hemoglobin O2 saturation; decrease in pH (acidosis) decreases hemoglobin O2 saturation
pressure is generally high/low in the pulmonary circuit?
relatively low (high pressure causes edema)
structure that allows communication between the inferior stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine
The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form this vein that runs most of the length of the arm
contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. (its why objects float on water)
two functions of glycogenolysis
1-maintain blood glucose level
2-provide energy during fight-or-flight response
what affect does living at high altitude have on your erythrocytes?
increased erythrocyte production
when blood pH decreases does more or less O2 become available for tissues?
more O2 is released from hemoglobin in response to the increased acidity making more O2 available to tissues.
Which blood group will have its erythrocytes agglutinated by either type A plasma or type B plasma?
type AB has both antigen A and antigen B. Thus it will be agglutinated by both anti-A antibody and anti-B antibody.
which have relatively more smooth muscle, small arteries or large arteries?
Small arteries are more muscular than large arteries
which is an active process and which is passive inpiration/expiration?
inspiriation is active
expiration is passive