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United States History I Mid-Term exam review, 8th grade

Columbian Exchange

exchange of goods, ideas, and people between europe and the americas

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

George III

English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

Second Continental Congress

met in Philadelphia (1775); organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Battle of Saratoga

The battle which was the turning point of the Revolution because after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support us with money, troops, ships, etc.

New England Economy

Primarily consisted of ship building and fishing

Virginia

First British colony. Founded in 1607 by the Jamestown Settlement.

Samuel Adams

Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

Tyrant

a ruler or person who has complete power and uses it in cruel or unjust ways

British Governing Policies of 1770's

Parliament passed laws and taxes mainly to regulate and tax the colonies in an effort to raise revenue to help pay off debt from the French and Indian War

Battles of Lexington and Concord

in 1775 conflicts between Massachusetts Minutemen and British soldiers that started the Revolutionary War

Committees of Correspondence

Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

No taxation without representation

quote often used that reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament

Give me liberty, or give me death

Patrick Henry speech given in 1775 to the Virginia Convention of Delegates. Taken from the papers known as the Virginia Resolves.

Boston Massacre

a clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists were killed. This event was highly publicized by Paul Revere and Samuel Adams and used to provoke anti-British sentiment throughout the colonies.

Tobacco Plantations

Large estates of land in Virginia and the southern colonies that grew tobaco, the crop with the largest net profit. Slaves were used to work the land on which tobacco was grown.

John Hancock

Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Intolerable Acts

combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.

Boston Tea Party

A 1773 protest against British taxes (Tea Act) in which Boston colonists (Sons of Liberty) disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor. British will respond by passing the Coercive Acts.

Puritans

Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property. First attributed to John Locke. Reinterpreted by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.

Marquis de Lafayette

French General who helped Washington during American Revolution and later became important in French Revolution.

Writs of Assistance

Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies.

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies (GA didn't go) sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts. Petition the British government to recognize colonists rights.

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Declaration of Independence

This document was adopted on July 4, 1776 by the Second Continental Congress. It established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.

John Adams

Lawyer who defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial. He believed in "innocent until proven guilty." In spite of these actions, he supported colonial independence. Would become the 2nd president of the U.S.

Pilgrims

English Separatist/Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse. French will lose all authority of Canada.

Articles of Confederation

this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage. Required 9 out of 13 states to agree to pass a law.

Baron von Steuben

Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War. Taught essential military skills such as drills, tactics, and discipline.

Shot heard around the world

phrase given to the shots fired at Lexington and Concord, MA, the first battles between the colonial minutemen and the British in the Revolutionary War

Tories

a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist

Treaty of Paris, 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River

Quartering Act

Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

Monarchy

government under a single ruler, usually a king or queen

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries. Part of the British policy known as Mercantilism

Mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Salutary Neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Roger Williams

A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south

Benjamin Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove. He is also noted to have helped establish a fire company and helped found an early version of the postal service.

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

Olive Branch Petition

Initiated by John Dickinson of the Second Continental Congress on July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Constitutional Convention

meeting of delegates in Philadelphia 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution

Roanoke

Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton. Baron von Steuben arrives in camp and trains troops.

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

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