US History II

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Unit 1

In attempting to establish a reconstruction policy after the Civil War,

Congress and the President disagreed about who had the authority to devise a plan of reconstruction

Pardons granted to rebel soldiers under the terms of Lincoln's Proclamation of
Amnesty and Reconstruction were important in that they...

restored property (except slaves) and political participation

Members of Congress hoped Lincoln would not veto the Wade-Davis Bill because they wanted to..

guarantee freedmen equal protection before the law

The army's system of compulsory free labor in the South during and after the Civil War differed from the slave labor system in that wages were paid and..

employers were prohibited from using physical punishment, although the army could discipline blacks who refused to work.

Ex-slaves believer that ownership of land..

was a moral right and was linked to their freedom

"Sherman Land" and the establishment of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands...

created an exception among ex-slaves that they would become independent citizens and landowners.

Following emancipation, many ex-slaves aspired to..

reunite family members sold away.

Although Andrew Johnson had left the Democratic Party before becoming president, he seemed more a Democrat than a Republican as president because..

he advocated states' rights and limitations on federal power, especially in the economic realm.

Abraham Lincoln's and Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plans both promised reconciliation and the rapid restoration of civil government in the South; they also shared an emphasis on...

pardons for most former rebel soldiers and ratification of the 13th Amendment.

During the Reconstruction era, souther black codes...

restricted freedmen's economic opportunities and civil rights.

The black codes were essentially an attempt to...

subordinate blacks to whites and regulate the labor supply.

The Civil Rights Act of 1866...

made discrimination in state laws illegal.

The 14th Amendment dealt with voting rights for blacks by...

giving congress the right to reduce a state's representation in that body if the state refused to give all of its adult male population, including ex-slaves, the right to vote.

The voting rights provisions of the 14th Amendment proved a major disappointment for...

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other advocates of female suffrage.

The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson...

effectively ended Johnson's interference in reconstruction.

The 15th Amendment...

extended black male suffrage to the entire nation.

The Ku Klux Klan developed into a paramilitary organization, but it began as...

a social club for Confederate veterans who wanted to restore white supremacy.

Private ownership of land was critical to the successful integration of freedmem into the mainstream of American society, because owning land...

would give them economic independence from whites.

The system under which farmers rented small pieces of land, paid their rent with a portion of their crops, and were provided mules and tools by their landlord was known as...

sharecropping.

President Ulysses S. Grant's administration saw...

corruption at all levels of government, a severe economic depression, labor violence, and an attempt to annex Santo Domingo to provide the freedmen with a new home.

The constitutional amendment that prohibited states from depriving citizens of the right to vote on the basis of their "race, color, pr previous condition of servitude"...

was undermined by literacy and property qualifications in southern states.

When southern Republicans pleaded with Congress for federal protection from the racism and violence of the Ku Klux Klan , Congress...

responded by passing the Ku Klux Klan and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

Supreme Court decisions in the years following the Civil War largely...

undermined reconstruction.

By the early 1870s, the congressional reconstruction goals of 1866...

had been mostly abandoned by Northerners.

"Redeemers" were...

southern Democrats who wanted to restore white supremacy in the South.

By the early 1870s, Democrats had adopted a two-pronged strategy to defeat the Republicans. That strategy consisted of...

polarizing the political parties on the issue of color and relentlessly intimidating black voters.

In the presidential election of 1876,

the Democrats had won the popular vote but fell one vote short of victory in the electoral college, while the Republican candidate initially fell nineteen electoral votes short of victory.

In the Compromise of 1877,

southern Democrats accepted a Republican president in exchange for federal subsidies and the removal of federal troops from the South.

The Compromise of 1877 essentially...

spelled the end of reconstruction and of the Republicans' commitment to the civil rights of blacks.

Congressional reconstruction did not meet all of its goals, but among those it did meet were...

the legacy of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

Why did the U.S government decided to move Indians to reservations around the mid-nineteenth century?

the government's policy of Indian removal further west was no longer practical because western land was no longer inexhaustible.

What was the outcome of the second Treaty of Fort Laramie?

it was violated by the U.S government after gold was discovered in the Black Hills.

What occurred under the "outing system" of the 1880s?

Indian children were forced to live with white families over summer vacation.

What was the outcome of the Dawes Act of 1887?

division of reservations and allotment of individual plots of land to Native Americans.

What was the Comstock Lode?

the richest vein of silver ore found on the North American continent.

Which of the following is true of labor unions in the western unions in the western mining industry?

They formed early and held considerable bargaining power.

What was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?

to decrease the Chinese population of the American West.

The vast majority of territorial appointees chosen by the president were...

beneficiaries of the spoils systems.

Why did the federal government do so little to halt corruption and scandal in the western territories?

distance, funding, and local hostility limited the government's ability to prosecute cases.

For what reason did hundreds of thousands of Americans migrate West in the three decades after 1870?

to own their own land.

Which two factors helped stimulate the land rush in the trans-Mississippi West?

Homestead ACt of 1862 and the opening of the transcontinental railroad.

What did the Homestead Act of 1862 promise to potential migrants to the West?

160 acres free to any citizen or prospective citizens who settled on land west of the Mississippi River for five years.

How did the landscape of the trans-Mississippi West change between 1870 and 1900?

family farms gave way to commercial farming.

By the 1870s, homesteaders discovered that most of the prime land in the West was...

already in the hands of speculators.

What did the state and federal governments do to encourage railroad construction in the decades after the Civil War?

they gave railroad companies 180 million acres of public land.

How did the invention of barbed wire revolutionize the cattle industry?

the wire allowed ranchers to fence in their cattle.

Chapter 18

...

The Gilded Age can be described as...

an era marked by personal greed and a corrupt partnership between business and politics.

A key factor in the rise of the Gilded Age was...

the growth of industrialism.

In the second half of the nineteenth-century, American life came to be dominated by the country's first big business..

railroading.

Railroad construction in the nineteenth-century America was boosted significantly by...

monetary aid and land grants from federal and state governments.

When he died in 1892, Jay Gould was described as both "the world's richest man" and "the most hated man in American," an indication that...

he was a symbol of all that most troubled the public about the rise of big business in America.

The relatively new building material that both improved railroading in the late nineteenth century and depended on it was...

steel produced through the Bessemer process.

Vertical integration...

places all aspects of the business, from mining raw materials to marketing and transporting finished products, under the control of the chief operating officer.

Carnegie Steel achieved the tremendous productivity that Andrew Carnegie insisted on by...

forcing employees to work long hours under extremely dangerous conditions for low pay.

Ida M. Tarbell's "History of the Standard Oil Company" in McClure's Magazine depicted John D. Rockefeller as...

a ruthless, unscrupulous malefactor who had used practically very dirty trick in the corporate book to gain control of the oil industry.

Alexander Graham Bell...

used a complicated organizations structure in his new company that allowed both local and cross-country communication.

At the beginning of the 20th century, electricity...

was utilized mostly in urban areas of the United States.

Prominent business leaders of the late 19th century, such as J.P. Morgan,

despised competition and tried to substitute consolidation and central control whenever they could.

J.P. Moran acquired the core of what would be the largest corporation in the world when he purchased...

steel interests formely controlled by Andrew Carnegie.

The theory of social Darwinism held that...

progress is the result of competition, and that social reforms and other modes of human interference impede progress.

The economic theory of laissez-faire political clout in the late 19th century in part because...

the Supreme Court increasingly was reinterpreting the Constitution to protect business.

The Supreme Court used a novel interpretation of the 14th Amendment to help big business near the end of the 19th century. The Court did this by...

elevating property rights over all other rights.

Voter turnout in national elections during the last three decades of the nineteenth century averaged 80 percent, a phenomenon that can be attributed in part to the...

fact that voting was an important way to get a government job.

After Reconstruction, the term solid South referred to...

the states of the old Confederacy, which voted Democratic in every election for the next seventy years.

After Reconstruction, the call for a New South signaled...

some desire among Southerns to shift from agriculture to industry as the basis of their economy.

In the late 19th century, the notion that black men were a threat to white women in the South contributed significantly to...

an increase in lynchings across the South.

According to Ida B. Wells, lynching was a problem that rooted in...

economics and the shifting social structure of the South.

Deined the right to vote during in the late 19th century, American Women...

found ways to affect the political process though the antilynching, suffrage, and temperance movements.

President James A. Garfield unwittingly helped the cause of civil service reform...

when he was shot by Charles Guiteau, a mentally disturbed man who had failed to secure a government position.

The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 established the Civil Service Commission and...

made it impossible to remove people in civil service jobs for political reasons.

The president who lost the election at the end of his first term and was re-elected to a second term four years later was...

Grover Cleveland.

By the 1880s, the tariff posed a threat to America's prosperity because...

it created a surplus that was not used to produce goods and services.

The Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation's first federal regulatory agency,

was so weak in its early years that it served as little more than a historical precedent.

Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act...

testified to the nation's growing willingness to use federal measures to intervene in big business on behalf on the public interest.

When advocated of bimetallism referred to the "crime of '73," they were talking about...

the decision by Congress in 1873 to stop bullying and minting silver.

During the economic depression in the winter of 1894-95, president Glover Cleveland hoped to increase the nation's flagging gold reserves by...

making a deal with a private group of bankers, headed by J.P. Morgan, to purchase gold abroad and supply it to the government.

Chapter 19

...

Significant urban growth in the late 19th century meant that by 1900, more than one million people were living in...

New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

The astonishing growth in urban population between 1870 and 1900 was largely the product of...

the movement of people into cities from other areas of the country and from abroad.

The world economy at the turn of the 20th century can best be described as...

an industrial core, an agricultural domain, and a third world tied to the industrial corer by economic colonialism.

In the late 1970s, US industrialists hired cheap labor from around the world because...

railroad expansion and low steamship fares enabled immigrants to flock to America.

Beginning in the 1880s, new immigrants to America typically cane from...

eastern and southern Europe.

By 1900, the majority of immigrants to the United States...

lived in cities because jobs were available there and because they did not have the money to buy land.

Technological advances and mechanization allowed the U.S industrialists to...

replace skilled laborers with lower-paid unskilled laborers form southern and eastern Europe.

In the late 19th century, racism directed at ethnic immigrant groups in America...

was the product of people's perceptions of ethnic and religious differences as racial characteristics.

Racism in the late 19th century American was most evident in...

violence toward blacks and the economic scapegoating of Asians on the West Coast.

Southern black migrated to northern cities in the 1890s...

for economic opportunities and safety.

Congress approved a literacy test for immigrants in 1896...

as a means of limiting the influx of "backward" people into the country.

As middle- and upper-class urbanites moved to new ares of their cities, poor city dwellers...

were forced into inner-city slums and the neighborhoods around the factories where they worked.

In his best-selling How the other Half Lives(1890), Jacob Riis...

forced middle-class Americans to acknowledge the degraded reality of the poor.

The backbone of the American labor force throughout the nineteenth century was...

common laborers.

The U.S. garment industry began to change in the 1850s as...

independent tailors were replaced by sweatshop workers.

In the working-class family of 19th century America, economic survival...

depended on everyone's working.

In the late 19th century, married black women often supplemented their family income by working...

outside the home as domestics.

As a consequence of the business expansion and consolidation of the late 19th century,

a new class of managers evolved.

The opening of department stores in the late 19th century went hand in hand with...

a new consumer culture and the material promise of the times.

The main lesson workers learned from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was that...

they had little power individually, but could perhaps gain power if they joined a union.

The Knights of Labor...

was the first large-scale organization for American workers.

During the 1880s, the Knights of Labor advocated for...

public ownership of the railroads, an income tax, equal pay for women, and the abolition of child labor.

Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation of Labor,

focused on higher pay and better working conditions.

Working-class courtship rituals in urban, industrial America...

shifted from family-arranged arrangements to informal meetings at the dance halls and other commercial retreats.

Beginning in the 1870s, American men of all classes were united in their passions for...

baseball.

In the late 1800s, Coney Island symbolized the...

rise of mess entertainment in America.

The modern skyscraper emerged in the 1890s primarily as a consequence of the...

advent of structural steel.

Two key elements of the public school system in American cities were...

free tuition and open access to all children.

By the end of the nineteenth century, American libraries...

made up of the most extensive free public-library system in the world.

In the post- Civil War era, the city boss...

oversaw the building of the city and provided social services for new residents.

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