origin of primates
lower primates. lemurs, tarsiers, loris (bush-babies)
lower primates. prosimians, lemurs lorises
higher primates . A. platyrrhini (new world monkeys) B. Catarrhini (old world monkey & apes) 1. Cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys) 2. Hominoidea (apes) a. Hylbatidae (df)
Holocene (recent) 10Ka, Uper/Later Pleistocene 125 Ka, Middle Pleistocene 790 Ka(origin of the primates), Lower/Earlier Pleistocene 1.8 Ma, Pliocene (origin homo) 5Ma, Miocene (origin homonids and homonoids (apes))23 Ma, Oligocene (Origin Haplorhines & Catarrhines?) Aegyptopithecus 38 Ma, Eocene (df, slide online!) http://lms.uconn.edu:80/webct/urw/ssinboundCAS.snWebCT.siURN:X-WEBCT-VISTA-V1:8dd26cf1-8963-1ae4-0185-6ec100232f70/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct?appforward=/webct/viewMyWebCT.dowebct&ticket=ST-15214-5YLnjRUWgncHCiqbxJbs9pmoqWjNxSEdfTb-20)
At least one early mammal ate dinosaurs!
repenomamus robustus with psittacosaur in the gut
The K-T Boundary
(K)Cretaceous-Tertiary 65Ma. End of the dinosaurs
Earliest primate fossil found
FADs & LADs
(first & last appearance data) How likely is it that you will find the fossil of the very first or very last member of a species?
Early Strepsirhine. Primitive traits: Dental formula: 220.127.116.11. Body weight small: less than or equal to 7kg Derived traits: Nails, not Claws. expanded visual cortex. reduced olefactory bulb. 54 Ma (eocene) Orbit is ring of bone around eye. orbit faces front (stereoscopic).
Messel Shale Quarry, Germany
Ancient Lake Beds with volcanic ash. Date ~47Ma. "ida" from eocene may have lived here.
Early strepsirhine. Bdy outline & impressions of fur preserved in lake mud. Remains of last meal (fruit & leaces in stomach cavity) had opposable thumb. scientific name = darwinius (df)
Quarry 'M', Fayum, Egypt
Aegyptopithecus found there. was once a dense tropical forest.
Haplorhine, Catarrhine. Dental formula: 2,1,2,3. 31-37 Ma. Oligocene. Orbit completely enclosed in bone. whole socket instead of just a ring. Arboreal, quadrepedal, less than or equal to 7 kg. Diet: fruit and leaves. reduced olfactory buld, increased visual cortex. Sexually dimorphic. Body size Males>females. Males: sagittal crest. Canines larger in males.
Gorillas, Chimps, Humans = subfamily: hominae
orangoutangs = subfamily: ponginae
19-16 Ma. found by louis and mary leaky. Quadrupedal, suspensory.
Large overlapping canines. creates Honing facet. Diastema (gap in tooth row where canines rest when animal has mouth shut).
A possible human ancestor? Reduced canine: Human like. Honinf facet & Diastema: Chimp like.
African Moicene Hominoids
Many Genera & species (unlike now) Diet & locomotion diverse. Quadrepedal & suspensory. Mostly fruit eating. Body size ~20-50 kg. Sexually dimorphic. No certainty which are ancestral to humans.
discovered in 1856, France
Thought for many years to be a human ancestor. All Ramapithecus fossils are teeth & jaws. Supposed human features: Parabolic Dental arcade. Thick tooth enamel.