How did the powers of popes and kings differ?
Popes had spiritual power and kings had political power.
What happened when Pope Leo excommunicated the bishop of Constantine?
It created a permanent split within the church.
What caused conflicts between kings and popes?
Kings thought they should be able to select bishops in their countries. Popes argued that only they could choose religious officials.
Why did Christians and Muslims fight in the Crusades?
Christians and Muslims fought in the Crusades over control of Palestine, a region in Southwest Asia.
Why did the Crusades fail?
The crusaders had to travel huge distances just to reach the war. Many died along the way; Crusader's weren't prepared to fight in Palestine's desert climate; The Christians were outnumbered by their well-led and organized Muslim foes; Christian leaders fought among themselves and planned poorly.
Why were some people unhappy with the political nature of the church?
They thought the clergy should focus only on spiritual matters. These people feared that the church had become obsessed with wealth and power.
What was a key step in bringing democracy to England?
The creation of an independent judicial system was a key step in bringing democracy to England.
How did the results of the Hundred Years' War affect the governments of England and France?
In England, Parliament's power grew because the king needed Parliament's approval to raise money to pay for the costly war.; In France, the king's power grew because during the war the king had become popular with his nobles.
How did labor change for the serfs and peasants who survived the Black Death?
Serfs and peasants could demand wages for their labor.
What three groups of people were punished during the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions?
The Muslims, Jews, and heretics were punished during the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions.