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An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates

an operational definition

Any factor, such as infant nutrition, that can vary in its quality or quantity is called a

variable

Behaviorists dismissed the value of

introspection

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of

behavior and mental processes

Dr. Santaniello conducts research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a(n) ________ psychologist.

developmental

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

nature and nurture.

In a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n)

operational definition.

In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the ________ variable.

independent

In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.

mental life; observable behavior

In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?

the survey

Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations, images, and feelings is called

introspection.

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

overconfidence

Our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to

an illusory correlation

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.

evolutionary

Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of

...

Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on TV are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because

association does not prove causation.

The case study is a research method in which

a single individual is studied in great depth.

The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their

culture

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a

psychiatrist

To assess the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researchers plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are more intelligent than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of

random assignment.

To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use

...

When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying

...

Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?

random sampling

Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?

the experiment

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

cognitive

Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encouraged among various ethnic groups?

social-cultural

Which psychologists are MOST likely to be involved in applied research?

?

Which research method assesses how well one variable predicts another without specifying a cause and effect relationship between the variables?

the correlational method

Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?

James

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