Medical Terminology Chp 4

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Medical Terminology Chp 4 - The Muscular System

Muscles (Muscul/o, My/o, Myos/o)

Make body movement possible, hold body erect, move body fluids, and produce body heat.

Fascia (fasci/o)

Cover, support, and separate muscles.

Tendons (ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o)

Attach muscles to bones

bi-

prefix meaning two, twice, double

-cele

suffix meaning hernia, swelling, protrusion

dys-

bad, difficult, painful

fibr/o

fiber, fibrous tissue

-ia

state, condition

-ic

pertaining to

kines/o

movement, motion

my/o

combining form for muscle

-plegia

paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)

-rrhexis

to rupture

tax/o

order; coordination

ten/o

tendon, stretch out, extend, strain

ton/o

tone or tension

tri-

three, triple

abduction

(physiology) moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body

adduction

(physiology) moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body

adhesion

a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures

ataxia

Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movements, resulting in shaky/tremor-like movements

atonic

lacking normal muscle tone or strength

atrophy

Any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use)

bradykinesia

abnormally slow movement

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)

chronic fatigue syndrome

a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems

circumduction

circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point

contracture

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

dorsiflexion

bending of the foot or the toes upward

dyskinesia

abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements

dystaxia

difficulty in controlling voluntary movement

dystonia

a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

electromyography

a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

electroneuromyography (EMG)

a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle

epicondylitis

inflammation of the tissues around the elbow; golfer or tennis elbow

ergonomics

The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.

exercise physiologist

a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

fasciitis

inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together

fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms

ganglion cyst

a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.

heel spur

Is a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis

hemiparesis

slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemiplegia (Hemi)

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body

hyperkinesia

abnormally increased muscle function or activity

hypertonia

condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles

hypokinesia

abnormally decreased muscle function or activity

hypotonia

a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

impingement syndrome (IS)

occurs when the tendons become inflamed and get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint.

intermittent claudication (IC)

characterized by leg pain and weakness brought on by walking, with the disappearance of the symptoms following a brief rest

muscular dystrophy (MD)

group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

myasthenia gravis (MG)

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

myocele

the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

myoclonus

the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

myofascial release

a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ), and carpal tunnel syndrome

myolysis

degeneration of muscle tissue

myoparesis

weakness or partial paralysis of a muscle

myorrhaphy

surgical suturing of a muscle wound

myotonia

a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

oblique

a diagonally arranged abdominal muscle on either side of the torso

paralysis

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply

paraplegia

paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord

physiatrist

a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

plantar faciitis

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot. this condition causes foot or heel pain when walking or running

polymyositis (PM)

a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

pronation

rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward

quadriplegia (Quad)

paralysis of both arms and both legs

sarcopenia

the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

shin splint

is a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)

singultus

an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm followed by rapid closure of the glottis (hiccup)

spasmodic torticollis

(wryneck) a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side

sphincter

circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening

sprain

a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments

tenodesis

surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone

tenodynia

pain in a tendon

tenolysis

to free a tendon from adhesions

tenorrhaphy

surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon

Flexion

decreases an angle, as in bending a joint. During flexion, the knee or elbow are bent.

Elevation

Raising a body part

Rotation

Turns a bone on its axis

Supination

Turns the palm of the hand upward or forward

Extension

increases an angle, as in straightening a joint.
During extension, the knee or elbow are straightened

Depression

lowers a body part. During depression,
the depressor anguli oris lowers the corner of the mouth in a frown.

Planter flexion

bends the foot downward at the ankle

Origin

which is the less moveable attachment, is
the place where the muscle begins. The origin is located nearest the midline

Insertion

which is the more moveable attachment,
is the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon

neurologist

is a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function.

rheumatologist

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

Repetitive Stress Disorder (RSD)

also known as repetitive motion disorders, are a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports

R.I.C.E.

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

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