Four Nitrogen Bases
Adonine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
Cytosine forms a hydrogen bond with?
Adonine forms a hydrogen bond with?
What is DNA's job?
To carry the genetic information of an organism
What is replication?
The production of a new copy of an organism's genetic information which is passed on to a new cell
What is a double helix?
The double coiled shape of DNA
What are the two Nucleic Acids?
DNA and RNA
building units composed of DNA. Consists of the four base groups, a deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group
A five carbon sugar
Define Phosphate Group?
A group composed of one phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms
Define Nitrogenous Base?
A carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen
List the steps of copying DNA?
1) separation of the strands
2) base pairing
3) bonding of the bases
4) results of replication
Why is the structure of a DNA molecule described as a zipper?
Because like a zipper being held together by the teeth, the two chains of nucleotides are held together by nitrogenous bases
What does DNA stand for?
Who was Johann Miescher?
A Swiss physician who identified DNA; thought it was a simple molecule containing only four parts
Who was Fredrick Griffith?
A scientist who studied material in dead bacteria; came to the conclusion that you could change harmless bacteria to harmful bacteria
Who was Avery Oswald?
A scientist who studied at Rockefeller University; concluded that DNA was a transforming factor
What was Hershey and Chase?
Science lab on Long Island; used radioactively labeled viruses made of only protein and DNA; the viruses infected the bacteria and only transferred the DNA; concluded that genetic material in the viruses was DNA
In order to carry out its job, DNA must?
1) replicate itself
2) be durable; strong structure
3) carry information to code for proteins
4) contain organic substances
Who were Watson and Crick?
Scientists who made models of molecules with structures to fit the data that Rosalind Franklin had discovered
Describe the structure of Nucleotides?
1) a phosphate
2) a deoxyribose sugar
3) Nitrogen bases (Adonine, Guanine, Cytosine & Thymine)
How is DNA different from RNA?
DNA has thymine but RNA doesn't; while RNA has uracil but DNA doesn't
What are three parts of RNA?
1) Single Stranded
2) Nucleic Acids - building blocks for nucleotides
3) Bases - Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, Uracil
What are three types of RNA?
1) Messanger RNA - mRNA
2) Transfer RNA - tRNA
3) Ribosomal RNA - rRNA
What does Messenger RNA do?
Transcribes information from the DNA in the nucleus and carries it to the cytoplasm, and then to the ribosome
What does Transfer RNA do?
Brings amino acids to the ribosome - the site of protein synthesis
What does Ribosomal RNA do?
Combines with proteins to make ribosomes
What are three ways in which the structure of RNA differs from the structure of DNA?
1) RNA is single stranded while DNA has a double helix
2) RNA has uracil while DNA has thymine
3) RNA has a ribose base while DNA has a deoxyribose base
Where does cell transcription take place?
In the nucleus
What is the end product of transcription?
A messenger RNA molecule containing DNA material - the messenger RNA (mRNA) then goes to the ribosome
Chart out DNA (nucleic acid)
DNA - Double chain structure - contains deoxyribose sugar - bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine - DNA is found in the nucleus - there aren't different types of DNA
Chart out RNA (nucleic acid)
RNA - single chain structure - contains ribose sugar - bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil - RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm - there are three different types of RNA - messenger RNA (mRNA); ribosomal RNA (rRNA); and transfer RNA (tRNA)
What is a codon?
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA - provides genetic codes
What are proteins made up of?
How many types of amino acids are there?
Where is the DNA found?
What is transcription?
The process of making RNA from DNA
RNA transcription is similar to what process in DNA?
Which amino acids are represented by only one codon?
Methionine and Tryptophan
What are the three stop codons?
AGU; GAU; AAU
How many codon or codons can there be for the same amino acid?
How many anti-codons can be in a codon?
What are the three types of DNA mutations?
Deletion, Insertion and Substitution
What is Deletion?
When a base is lost
What is Insertion?
When an extra base is inserted
What is Substitution?
When one base is substituted for another
What is a Missense mutation?
When a substitution changes the amino acid
What is a Silence mutation?
When a substitution doesn't change the amino acid
What is a Nonsense mutation?
When a substitution changes the amino acid to a stop codon
Translation is to protein - as transcription is to?
mRNA because you translate codes to produce a protein and you transcribe codes for mRNA
What genetic mutation does Sickle Cell Anemia have?
Base substitution or Adding bases
Describe the genetic mutation - deletion?
Several bases (pieces of DNA) are moved and deleted
Describe the genetic mutation - duplication?
The DNA is duplicated and there is too much information
Describe the genetic mutation - inversion?
Twisting of the DNA - flipped or switched around
Describe the genetic mutation - translocation?
Chromosome flip - flops
What is transcription?
The process by which enzymes in the nucleus make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand
What is the difference between transcription and DNA replication?
Transcription results in the formation of one single stranded RNA molecule rather than a double stranded DNA molecule
What is translation?
The process of converting information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins
Where does translation take place?
In the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
How does transfer RNA help in translation?
By bringing 20 different amino acids dissolved in the cytoplasm to the ribosomes