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Questions for a Biology Test on DNA and pedigrees.

Four Nitrogen Bases

Adonine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine

Cytosine forms a hydrogen bond with?

Guanine

Adonine forms a hydrogen bond with?

Thymine

What is DNA's job?

To carry the genetic information of an organism

What is replication?

The production of a new copy of an organism's genetic information which is passed on to a new cell

What is a double helix?

The double coiled shape of DNA

What are the two Nucleic Acids?

DNA and RNA

Define Nucleotides?

building units composed of DNA. Consists of the four base groups, a deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group

Define Deoxyribose?

A five carbon sugar

Define Phosphate Group?

A group composed of one phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms

Define Nitrogenous Base?

A carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen

List the steps of copying DNA?

1) separation of the strands
2) base pairing
3) bonding of the bases
4) results of replication

Why is the structure of a DNA molecule described as a zipper?

Because like a zipper being held together by the teeth, the two chains of nucleotides are held together by nitrogenous bases

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Who was Johann Miescher?

A Swiss physician who identified DNA; thought it was a simple molecule containing only four parts

Who was Fredrick Griffith?

A scientist who studied material in dead bacteria; came to the conclusion that you could change harmless bacteria to harmful bacteria

Who was Avery Oswald?

A scientist who studied at Rockefeller University; concluded that DNA was a transforming factor

What was Hershey and Chase?

Science lab on Long Island; used radioactively labeled viruses made of only protein and DNA; the viruses infected the bacteria and only transferred the DNA; concluded that genetic material in the viruses was DNA

In order to carry out its job, DNA must?

1) replicate itself
2) be durable; strong structure
3) carry information to code for proteins
4) contain organic substances

Who were Watson and Crick?

Scientists who made models of molecules with structures to fit the data that Rosalind Franklin had discovered

Describe the structure of Nucleotides?

1) a phosphate
2) a deoxyribose sugar
3) Nitrogen bases (Adonine, Guanine, Cytosine & Thymine)

How is DNA different from RNA?

DNA has thymine but RNA doesn't; while RNA has uracil but DNA doesn't

What are three parts of RNA?

1) Single Stranded
2) Nucleic Acids - building blocks for nucleotides
3) Bases - Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, Uracil

What are three types of RNA?

1) Messanger RNA - mRNA
2) Transfer RNA - tRNA
3) Ribosomal RNA - rRNA

What does Messenger RNA do?

Transcribes information from the DNA in the nucleus and carries it to the cytoplasm, and then to the ribosome

What does Transfer RNA do?

Brings amino acids to the ribosome - the site of protein synthesis

What does Ribosomal RNA do?

Combines with proteins to make ribosomes

What are three ways in which the structure of RNA differs from the structure of DNA?

1) RNA is single stranded while DNA has a double helix
2) RNA has uracil while DNA has thymine
3) RNA has a ribose base while DNA has a deoxyribose base

Where does cell transcription take place?

In the nucleus

What is the end product of transcription?

A messenger RNA molecule containing DNA material - the messenger RNA (mRNA) then goes to the ribosome

Chart out DNA (nucleic acid)

DNA - Double chain structure - contains deoxyribose sugar - bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine - DNA is found in the nucleus - there aren't different types of DNA

Chart out RNA (nucleic acid)

RNA - single chain structure - contains ribose sugar - bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil - RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm - there are three different types of RNA - messenger RNA (mRNA); ribosomal RNA (rRNA); and transfer RNA (tRNA)

What is a codon?

A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA - provides genetic codes

What are proteins made up of?

Amino Acids

How many types of amino acids are there?

Twenty

Where is the DNA found?

The nucleus

What is transcription?

The process of making RNA from DNA

RNA transcription is similar to what process in DNA?

DNA replication

Which amino acids are represented by only one codon?

Methionine and Tryptophan

What are the three stop codons?

AGU; GAU; AAU

How many codon or codons can there be for the same amino acid?

Only one

How many anti-codons can be in a codon?

Only one

What are the three types of DNA mutations?

Deletion, Insertion and Substitution

What is Deletion?

When a base is lost

What is Insertion?

When an extra base is inserted

What is Substitution?

When one base is substituted for another

What is a Missense mutation?

When a substitution changes the amino acid

What is a Silence mutation?

When a substitution doesn't change the amino acid

What is a Nonsense mutation?

When a substitution changes the amino acid to a stop codon

Translation is to protein - as transcription is to?

mRNA because you translate codes to produce a protein and you transcribe codes for mRNA

What genetic mutation does Sickle Cell Anemia have?

Base substitution or Adding bases

Describe the genetic mutation - deletion?

Several bases (pieces of DNA) are moved and deleted

Describe the genetic mutation - duplication?

The DNA is duplicated and there is too much information

Describe the genetic mutation - inversion?

Twisting of the DNA - flipped or switched around

Describe the genetic mutation - translocation?

Chromosome flip - flops

What is transcription?

The process by which enzymes in the nucleus make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand

What is the difference between transcription and DNA replication?

Transcription results in the formation of one single stranded RNA molecule rather than a double stranded DNA molecule

What is translation?

The process of converting information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins

Where does translation take place?

In the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

How does transfer RNA help in translation?

By bringing 20 different amino acids dissolved in the cytoplasm to the ribosomes

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