the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
an agreement between 2 or more countries to help each other out in war
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Blood and iron
policy of German unification put forth by Bismarck; belief that industry & war would unify Germany
either of two wars: the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881)
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
using children to work in factories and businesses
People sent by the Christians to convert people to Christianity. They also spread the idea of Christianity through schools.
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
A book describing Karl Marx's theories about the economy. Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Colonies in which a few officials from one country (usually European) rule (non-European) people of another country.
Division of labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
English physician who pioneered vaccination
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.
someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
creates process that produces steel by purifying iron ore
any instance of aggressive extension of authority
English inventor of the spinning jenny (1720-1778)
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
policy based on the idea that government should play as a role
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
direct contact made by an interest group representative in order to persuade government officials to support the policies their interest group favors
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
competition among businesses
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. (See also Yamagata Aritomo.) (p. 694)
a German-Austrian politician and statesman, and one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to and at the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paradigm of foreign policy management and a major figure on the development of diplomacy.
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
the advantageous quality of being beneficial
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
local leader deals with domestic affairs; stronger country deals with foreign affairs and supports militarily
a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state.
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
Redistribution of wealth
the shifting of wealth from a rich minority to a poor majority.
a change for the better as a result of correcting abuses
He thought that laws limited child labor and kids should be educated so he opened his own little village in New Lanark, Scotland
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
people from the stronger country move (or settle) to the weaker country (U.S colonies)
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Standard of living
a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
the state of being joined or united or linked
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa