A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom.
A subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge. One or more electrons move around the nuclues of an atom.
The total mass of an atom; also called atomic weight. Given as a whole number, the atomic mass approximately equals the mass number.
One of several atomic forms of an element, each with teh same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
A strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons.
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electornegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
A molecule containing polar covalent bonds and having an unequal distribution of charges.
An atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrongs, thus acquiring a charge.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule (or in another region of the same molecule).
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter.
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. 0 on pH scale is a strong acid.
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. 14 is a strong base on the pH scale.
A scale we used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is. The scale ranges from 0-14, 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most basic. 7 is neutral (pure water)
A chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions.
substance that minimize changes in pH.
Decreasing pH of ocean waters due to absoprtion of excess atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels.