How many pts experience hallucinations during delirium?
What is the life expectancy after AD dx?
You assess your pt is currently safe to drive, when should you reassess?
acute onset/fluctuating behavior + inattention + disorganized thinking OR altered level of conciseness
What is the DSM criteria for delirium?
AD, Lewy bodies, vascular
List the 3 most common causes of dementia
after a few seconds it comes back
What is a hallmark of normal memory loss with age?
What are 2 symptoms of dementia that may get better with time?
change in level of consciousness
What is the first observable clue to delirium?
complex tasks, reasoning, spatial orientation, language
4 areas of learning/memory impairment in a demented pt
cortical hypometabolism in frontal lobes
What does a normal PET scan show in a pt with MCI?
Acute change in mental status which fluctuates throughout the day, accompanied by emotional disturbances and/or hallucinations
dementia with Lewy bodies
Pt's muscle tone is rigid, reports seeing snakes in his bathtub and frequently goes in and out of consciousness
What is the most common cause of pseudodementia?
deterioration in the evening
What is sundowning?
electrolyte/metabolic, infection, drugs/withdrawal, low perfusion
What is delirium caused by?
True or false: ACH inhibitors are effective in reducing agitation/psychosis in AD pts
false, there is no tx for MCI
True or false: once MCI is dx, AD or dementia meds should be initiated
FDDNP-PET scan, PiB
2 tests which differentiate MCI, AD, normal aging?
Thiamine must be replenished anytime ___ is administered to a comatose pt
heart disease, EPS
What are side effects of using antipsychotics in AD pts?
What is the protein which creates tangles?
isolated memory impairment
What is mild cognitive impairment (MCI)?
Korsakoff's syndrome, thiamine deficiency
Pt lacks the ability to establish new memory, and instead often confabulate responses. What is this called and what causes it?
Name a cognitive function which is normal in delirium but impaired in dementia
loss of cognitive function beyond normal aging
What is dementia?
meds, EtOH, metabolic, tumor, hydrocephalus
What are some other causes for pseudodementia?
memory impairment + aphasia, apraxia, agnosia OR executive function disturbance
What is the DSM criteria for dementia?
muscle strength, mobility, hearing, visual acuity, cognitive function/attention
5 things to test for when assessing ability to drive in AD pts?
FDDNP or PiB binding indicates what?
normal aging -> MCI -> dementia -> AD
What is the continuum between normal aging and AD?
normal pressure hydrocephalus
Pt is demented, cannot walk without losing balance and complains of bladder incontinence
notify pt and DMV
You determine your pt is unsafe to drive, what must you do?
Type of dementia which causes abrupt changes in personality?
refer for on-road evaluation
You determine your pt's driving ability is uncertain, what should you do?
Pt cannot walk, talk, smile, feed or groom themselves. Which stage of AD?
social, mental, physical activity
What are 3 protective lifestyle components against AD?
transient global amnesia
Pt has lost all retrograde and anterograde memory, do not know time or place but can recognize people. They keep asking the same questions over and over again.
True or false: delirium can last for months
true, R/O tumor, hydrocephalus
True or false: most pts suspected of dementia should receive a CT scan
Are pts with MCI aware/concerned about their memory loss?