Music 111 Test 1

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Music can be defined as

an art based on the organization of sounds of time.

The four main properties of musical sounds are pitch, dynamics, tone color, and....

melody

The relative highness or lowness of a sound is called

pitch

The ______ of a sound is decided by the frequency of its vibrations.

amplitude

Pitch is defined as

The relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound.

The frequency of vibrations is measured in

cycles per second

In general, the smaller the vibrating element, the ______ its pitch.

higher

In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a

tone

A tone in music is a sound that

has an indefinite pitch

The distance in pitch between any two tones is called

an interval

If a pitch vibrates at 880 cycles, the octave below would vibrate at_______ cycles.

220

When two different tones blend so well when sounded together that they almost seem to merge into one tone, the interval is called an.

octave

When tones are seperated by the interval called an______,they sound very much alike.

octave

The distance between the lowest and highest tones a voice or instrument can produce is called

pitch range

Dynamics in music refers to

degrees of loudness and softness

Degrees of loudness and softness in music are called

dynamics

The loudness of a sound is related to the_____ of the vibration that produces the sound.

amplitude

A dynamic accent occurs in music when a performer

emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it.

When a performer emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it, it is called a

dynamic accent

When notating music for others to read, composers traditionally have used___ words to indicate dynamics.

Italian

The Italian dynamic markings traditionally used to indicate very soft, soft, and very loud are.(respectively)

Pianissimo, piano, fortissimo

The italian dynamic markings traditionally used to indicate very soft, loud and very loud are respectively

Pianissimo, forte, fortissimo

A gradual increase in loudness is know as a

diminuendo

Timbre is synonymous with

tone color

tone color is synonymous with

timbre

The abbreviation op. stands for opus, Latin for

work

It is difficult to sing well because_____ than in speaking.

-singing demands a greater supply and control of breath
-vowel sounds are held longer
-wider ranges of pitch and volume are used

The range of a singers voice depends on

training and physical makeup

While professional singers can command a pitch range of two octaves or more, an untrained voice is usually limited to about.

an octave and a half

Which of the following is not a normal classification of male voice ranges?

Contralto

Register refers to

part of an instruments total range

A part of an instruments total range is called a

register

The bow that strings players usually use to produce sound on their instruments is a slightly curved stick strung tightly with

horsehair

The strings of a violin are tuned

by tightening or loosening the pegs

Plucking the string with the finger instead of using a bow is called

pizzicato

Pizzicato is an indication to the performer to

pluck the string with the finger instead of using the bow

When the string player causes small pitch fluctuations by rocking the left hand while pressing the string down, it is called

vibrato

If a string player uses vibrato--rocking of the left hand to produce small pitch flunctuations--it is because

using vibrato make the tone warmer and more expressive

The very high-pitched tones that are produced when a string player lightly touches certain points on a string are called

harmonics

Rapidly repeating tones by quick up and down strokes of the bow is a sting technique known as

tremolo

Woodwind instruments are so named because they

Were originally made of wood

The highest woodwind instrument in the orchesta is the

piccolo

The lowest instrument in the orchestra is the

contrabassoon

A symphonic band

consists mainly of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments

Symphonic Bands differ from symphonic orchestras in that they

do not contain a string section

Flute and piccolo players

blow across the edge of a mouth hole

A thin piece of cane, used singly or in pairs by woodwind players, is called a

reed

The english horn is neither English nor a horn, but a

alto oboe

The saxophone is

a single reed woodwind instrument

Which of the following is not a double reed instrument?

clarinet

Which of the following is not a brass instrument

english horn

The vibrations of brass instruments come from

the musicians lips

Brass instruments did not acquire valves until the_____________Century.

middle of the 18th

The_____is similar in shape to the trumphet, but its tone is more mellow.

french horn

A hollow, funnel-shaped piece of wood or plastic that brass players use to alter the tone of their instruments is called a

mute

Before 1850, french horn and trumpet players would insert____into their instruments to change the range of available pitches.

crooks

The_____are the only orchestral drums of definite pitch?

timpani

Which of the following is not a percussion instrument of definite pitch.

tambourine

The xylophone consists of a set of______bars that are played with mallets.

wooden

The piano has____keys, spanning more than 7 octaves.

88

The ____ pedal is the most important of the three pedals usually found on a piano.

damper

The____has strings that are plucked by a set of plastic, leather, or quill wedges.

harpsichord

The_____has many sets of pipes controlled from several keyboards, including a pedal keyboard.

pipe organ

The___is a keyboard instrument that uses vibrating air columns to produce sound.

pipe organ

Various sets of pipes on a pipe organ are brought into play by pulling knobs called

stops

The_____is a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.

beat

The element of music defined as the ordered flow of music through time, or more specifically, the particular arrangement of note lengths in a piece of music, is

rhythm

The organization of beats into regular groups is called

meter

The first, or stressed, beat of a measure is known as the

downbeat

______ is defined as putting an accent in music where it would not normally be expected.

syncopation

The term____refers to the rate of speed of the beat of music.

tempo

The Italian term___is a tempo marking to indicate a moderately slow or walking pace.

andante

The italian term ___ is a tempo marking to indicate a lively pace.

vivace

Which of the following is the slowest tempo indication

adagio

A gradual slowing down of tempo is indicated by the term

ritardando

A_____is an apparatus that produces ticking sounds or flashes of light at any desired musical speed.

metronome

A____sign is used in musical notation to cancel a previous sharp of flat sign.

natural

Western music uses___letters of the alphabet to indicate pitch.

the first 7

A staff is a

set of five horizontal lines

In musical notation, pitches are written on a set of five horizontal lines called a

staff

A_____is placed at the beginning of a staff to show the exact pitch of each line and space.

clef

The treble clef is used for

relatively high pitches, such as those played by the pianist

By adding a dot to the right of a note we

increase its duration by half

In musical notation, silence is indicated by

rests

In the full score of an orchestal composition, the families of instruments are arranged from top to bottom in the order of

woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings

In a musical time signature, the upper number tells

how many beats fall in a measure

Melody may be difined as

A series of single notes which add up to a recognizable whole

A series of single tones which add up to a recongnizable whole is called a

melody

A melody is said to move by steps if it moves by

large intervals

The emotional focal point of a melody is call the

climax

Staccato refers to playing or singing a melody

in a short detached manner

A smooth, connected style of playing a melody is known as

legato

A short, detached style of playing a melody is known as

staccato

Legato refers to playing or singing a melody

in a smooth connected style

A part of a melody is called

a phrase

A melodic phrase ending that sets up expectations for continuation is known as an

incomplete cadence

A cadence is

a resting place at the end of a phrase

A resting place at the end of a phrase is called a

cadence

A melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music is called a

theme

A theme is

a melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music

Sequence may be defined as

the repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch

The repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch is caled

a sequence

____in music adds support, depth, and richness to a melody.

Harmony

The musical element that refers to the wa chords are constructed and how they follow each other is

harmony

Harmony refers to

The way chords are constructed and how they follow each other

A chord is

a combination of three or more tones sounded at once

A combination of three or more tones sounded at the same time is called

a chord

A progression is

a series of chords

A series of chords is called an

progression

A consonance is a combination of tones that

is considered stable and restful

A combination of tones that is considered stable and restful is called a

consonance

A combination of tones that is cosidered unstable and tense is called a

dissonance

A dissonance is a combination of tones that

is considered unstable and tense

When a dissoncance moves to a consonance, it is called a

resolution

Resolution refers to an

dissonant chord moving to a consonant chord

Dynamic tension that demands onward motin in music is usually the result of

The performers technical ability

The simplest, most basic chord used in western music is the

triad

The triad built on the first step of the scale is called

the tonic chord

Traditionally, a composition would almost always end on a

tonic chord

The dominant chord is the triad built on the_______step of the scale.

fifth

The triad build of the fifth step of the scale is called the

dominant chord

When the individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously, it is called a broken chord or

arpeggio

The keynote, or tonic, of a melody is the___of the melody.

central tone

The central tone around which a musical composition is organized is called the

tonic

key refers to

a central tone, scale, and chord

The sense of relatedness to a central tone is known as

tonality

Tonality is another term for

key

Another term for key is

tonality

In traditional western music, the____is the smalles interval between successice tones of a scale.

half step

Sharp of flat signs immediately following the clef sign at the beginning of the staff of a musical composition are called the

key signature

The word chromatic comes from the Greek word chroma, color, and is used in music to refer to the

twelve tones of the octave

Modulation refers to

a shift from one key to another within the same composition.

A shift from one key to another withing the same composition is called

modulation

Musical texture refers to

-how many different layer of sound are heard at the same time
-What kind of layes of sound are heard
-How layers of sound are related to each other

Momophonic texture consists of

a single melodic line without accompaniment

If a flute player were to play a solo without any other accompaniment, the texture would be

monophonic

The texture of a single melodic line without accompanimnet is

monophonic

Performace of a single melodic line by more than one instrument or voice is described as playing or singing in

unison

Polyphonic texture consists of

two or more melodies of relatively equal interest performed simultaneously

When two or more melodic lines of equal interest are performed simultaneously, the texture is

polyphonic

The technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is called

counterpoint

When a melodic idea is presented by one voice or instrument and the restated immediately by another voice or instrument, the technique is called

imitation

Contrapuntal texture is sometimes used in place of the term

polyphonic texture

A round is an example of

strict imitation

A song in which several people sing the same melody but each singer starts at a different time is an example of

strict imitation

When harmonized by chords, Row, Row, Row your boat is an example of..

a round

Homophonic texture consists of

one main melody accompainied by chords

When there is one main melody accompanied by chords, the texture is.

homophonic

An example of homophonic texture could be a

hymn

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