Essential Biology Ch 01

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Properties of living things

Order, Regulate, Grow and Develop, Obtain and use energy, Respond to the environment, Reproduce, Evolve

Order

Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

Regulate

Organisms can control their internal environment regardless of their external environment

What controls growth and development

The sequence of DNA

How organisms obtain and use energy

either by consuming other organisms or photosynthesis in the case of plants

Respond to the environment

Organism will react to stimuli imposed by the environment

Reproduction

Will make more of its own kind

Evolution

Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time

Biosphere

The entire portion of the Earth inhabited by life

Ecosystem

All living things and their interaction with their environment

The difference between nutrients and energy in an ecosystem

nutrients cycle through organisms but energy flows through organisms, ends up being lost as heat and does not return to the system

Population

a group of organisms of the same species that are living together in the same area at the same time

Similarities of all cells

contain DNA and ribosomes, have a membrane surrounding them, came from other cells

Multicellular

an organism with many cells

Unicellular

an organism made up of one cell

Major difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

Gene

A segment of DNA that codes for a polypeptide

Genome

The entire amount of genetic information that an organism inherits

Taxonomy

The branch of biology that names and classifies species

The three Domains

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

The four Kingdoms of Eukarya and their properties

Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Protista

Plantae

produce their own sugars and other food by photosynthesis

Fungi

mostly decomposers, digest dead organisms

Animalia

obtain food by ingesting other organisms

Protista

generally unicellular group that live in water

Fossils

remains of once living organisms

The name of Darwin's publication

On the origin of species by means of natural selection

The three stages of Natural Selection

Overproduction and competition, individual variation is passed from generation to generation, unequal reproductive success

Adaptation

a characteristic that allows a species to be better suited to their environment

Artificial selection

Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans

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