Ch. 14: New Movements in America

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emancipation

Freedom from slavery.

abolition

The movement to end slavery.

tenements

Poorly built, overcrowded housing in cities where many immigrants lived.

urbanization

The rapid growth of cities.

suffrage

The right to vote.

middle class

Social and economic level between wealthy and poor that developed and grew in the U.S. during the 1800s.

reform

To change something in order to make it better.

temperance

The movement to encourage people to drink less alcohol.

Lucy Stone

Went to Oberlin College and kept her maiden name when she got married; formed the National Woman Suffrage Association.

Susan B. Anthony

Quaker who never got married and traveled the country giving speeches about women's rights and suffrage; co-founded the American Woman Suffrage Association.

Lucretia Mott

Quaker minister who helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention.

William Lloyd Garrison

Leading abolitionist who also believed women should have more rights -- he demonstrated this by sitting with the women at the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London.

Horace Mann

Known as the "Father of the Common School Movement" because he encouraged states to educate all of their citizens by funding mandatory, public schools through local taxes.

Frederick Douglass

African American abolitionist leader who also spoke up for women's suffrage at the Seneca Falls Convention.

Elizabeth Blackwell

She was the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States.

Sojourner Truth

Traveled around the country giving speeches against slavery and for women's rights. Known for her, "Ain't I a Woman" speech.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Primarily responsible for organizing the Seneca Falls Convention and gave the main speech that called for a number of "resolutions", including giving women the right to vote; co-founded the American Woman Suffrage Association.

low-skilled factory jobs; domestic servant; labor intensive jobs, like building railroads and canals

What types of jobs did Irish immigrants typically work in America?

women

On the first day of the Seneca Falls Convention, only ________ were allowed to attend.

the right to vote

What was the most controversial issue (resolution) presented at the Seneca Falls Convention?

Catholic

What "religion" were most Irish immigrants?

cholera

As a result of poor sanitation systems, in 1832 and 1849 New York City suffered _______ epidemics that killed thousands.

rejected the views of their southern, slaveholding family

Angelina and Sarah Grimke joined the anti-slavery movement after they ...

they were trying to escape political persecution

Why did so many German immigrants come to America during the 1840s and 1850s?

they felt threatened by the immigrants' culture & religion; they were afraid they would lose their jobs to immigrants; they were afraid that the increase of immigrants would lead to higher crime rights

Why did native-born Americans feel threatened by immigrants?

at the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, England

Where did Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott first meet?

abolitionist movement

The women's movement for equal rights was the offshoot of what other movement?

potato famine

During the 1840s, more than 1 million people died of starvation and disease in Ireland as the result of what?

the right to sit on a jury; the right to sign contracts; married women could not own property; the right to vote; women could not attend college; could not be elected to office; barred from almost all professions -- ministers, lawyers, doctors, etc.

What rights were denied to women during the first half of the 1800s?

she was a conductor on the Underground Railroad and led approximately 300 fugitive slaves to freedom

What contribution did Harriet Tubman make to the anti-slavery movement?

Mason-Dixon Line

What boundary became the division between the North and South (free v. slave states)?

"Follow the Drinking Gourd"

What spiritual contained hidden messages and / or symbols that helped guide runaway slaves to "freedom"?

nativists

American-born citizens who did not like immigrants are referred to as:

William Still

Who was one of the most active African American leaders of the Underground Railroad in Philadelphia?

Emma Willard

Who opened the Troy Female Seminary in 1821? (the first school in the U.S. to provide girls the same educational opportunities as boys)

they issued a "gag rule" ... meaning they refused to talk about it

How did Congress react to the thousands of anti-slavery petitions it received between 1836 and 1844?

it was the first time women in the U.S. organized as a group to discuss and demand their rights and it marked the start of the organized women's rights movement

What was the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention?

The U.S. Declaration of Independence (1776)

What document was the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments modeled off of?

the Second Great Awakening

What religious movement led to many of the reform movements of the mid-1800s?

spoke of the horrid conditions of prisons and petitioned governments to build separate facilities for the mentally ill?

What did Dorothea Dix do to help reform America?

immediate emancipation and racial equality for African Americans

What was the goal of the American Anti-Slavery Society?

free American schools for the deaf and those with hearing impairments

What was Thomas Gallaudet's contribution to educational reform movement?

reform effort to urge people to use self-discipline to stop drinking hard liquor

What was the temperance movement about?

William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass

Who were 2 male reformers that supported the women's rights movement?

The Liberator

What newspaper did William Lloyd Garrison publish?

they both were abolitionist newspapers

What did The Liberator and the North Star have in common?

criminal activity (including gangs); poor sanitation; overcrowding; no professional services (relied on volunteer watches for police protection and volunteer firefighters); disease (epidemics, like cholera); poor living conditions (tenements)

What were some of the problems of U.S. cities in the early to mid-1800s?

the American Party (or nicknamed, the Know-Nothing Party)

What political party did nativists form in 1849?

reduce crime; reduce poverty (the "drinking up" of family income); reduce domestic violence; reduce accidents at work

Why did some reformers argue for temperance? (How would temperance help Americans?)

Frederick Douglass

Who published the newspaper, The North Star?

leisurely activities (libraries, theaters, clubs) & a growing middle class

What were some of the good things about U.S. cities during the early to mid-1800s?

Sarah and Angelina Grimke

Who wrote the abolitionist book, "Slavery As It Is"?

many people converted to Christianity and church membership increased

What was a direct result of the Second Great Awakening?

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