Biology 1 Chapter 10

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Biology chapter 10

mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

spindle fibers

help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of micrtubules

centrosomes

the two poles of the cell, the place where spindle fibers grow from.

centrioles

does something with spindle fibers.

interphase

cell grows

prophase

first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus

metaphase

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

anaphase

the 3rd stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

telophase

The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

What are the phases of Mitosis

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphas
Anaphase
Telophase

What happens during telophase

cytokinesis-splitting of cytoplasm
mitosis splitting of nuclus

Stages of interphase

G1
S
G2

DNA

Deoxyribosenucleic acid-forms the genetic material of all cells. Double helix structure

What structure is DNA

Double helix

Cell Nuclease has ____ chromosomes

23 pairs

What are the different forms of DNA

Chromatin
Chromosome
Chromatid
Centromere
Kinetochore

chromatin

combination of DNA and protein
Most common form of DNA
can't be seen
Blueprints that are read

Chromosome

visible form of DNA
Blueprint is NOT read
Chromotin is tightly coiled

chromatid

1/2 of duplciated chromosome
2 chromatids attached at a centromere
Called sister chromatids

centromere

where sister chromoatids are joined
holds the kinetochore

kinetochore

protein in center of centromere and connected to microtubles to transport chromosome to opposite end of cell

Cell cycle is divided in ___ parts

2 Interphase and miotic phase

G1 phase

cell grows
normal metabolic roles

S phase

Synthesis
genetic material duplicates

G2 phase

DNA is loose chromotin but ready to go

Miotic phase contains

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Miotic phase

cycle when a cell begins to divide

Mitosis

duplicated DNA seperates and moves to opposite sides-create 2 daughter nuclei

Cytokinesis

cytoplasm splits into 2 (makes identical daughter cells)

asexual reproduction

reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

sexual reproduction

process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent

chromosomes

thread like structures that have genetic info that is passed down from one generation to the next

prokaryotic

describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria.

eukaryotic

contains a nucleues , plasama membrane

cytokineses in plant cell

cell membrane not flexible-creates a cell plate for division

cytokinesis in animals

cytoplasm pinches in 1/2 and separates

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