A&P Chapter 16: The Endocrine System

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1. Answer: D

2. Answer: B

3. Answer: E

4. Answer: C

5. Answer: A

Using Figure 16.1, match the following:

1) Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual
characteristics at puberty.

2) Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.

3) Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.

4) Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

5) Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ

Growth Hormone = A
Follicle Stimulating Hormone = C
Prolactin = B
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone = E
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone = D

Growth Hormone = ?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone = ?
Prolactin = ?
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone = ?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone = ?

A) Diabetes mellitus
B) Addisonʹs disease
C) Gravesʹ disease
D) Acromegaly
E) Pituitary dwarfism

11) An autoimmune problem
involving the thyroid gland.

12) Hyposecretion of growth
hormone.

13) Hyposecretion of the
pancreas.

14) Hyposecretion of the adrenal
cortex.

15) Hypersecretion of growth
hormone

11) C
12) E
13) A
14) B
15) D

A) Cushing's disease
B) Myxedema
C) Cretinism
D) Acromegaly

16) Hyposecretion of the thyroid
in adults.

17) Hypersecretion of the adrenal
cortex.

18) Hypersecretion of growth
hormone.

19) Hyposecretion of the thyroid
in infants

16) B
17) A
18) D
19) C

A) Hypophysis
B) Pancreas
C) Thyroid
D) Parathyroid
E) Adrenal medulla

20) The size and shape of a pea;
produces hormones that
stimulate other endocrine
glands.

21) The gland that controls the
fight-or-flight reaction.

22) Produces hormones that
regulate glucose levels in the
body.

23) Produces a hormone that
controls blood levels of
calcium and potassium by
their removal from bone
tissue.

24) Produces the bodyʹs major
metabolic hormones

20) A
21) E
22) B
23) D
24) C

TRUE or FALSE: The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Addison's disease is due to a deficit output of glucocorticoids only.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: In aged individuals, chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deterioration.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: Enteroendocrine cells of the GI tract produce some hormones that are chemically identical to neurotransmitters.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stress.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.

TRUE

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
A) aldosterone
B) insulin
C) secretin
D) cortisol

D) cortisol

Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________.
A) adrenal medulla
B) pancreas
C) thyroid gland
D) thymus gland

D) thymus gland

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.
A) ions
B) deactivators
C) nucleotides
D) second messengers

D) second messengers

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
A) enzyme
B) humoral
C) neural
D) hormonal

A) enzyme

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.
A) enzymes
B) antibodies
C) proteins
D) hormones

D) hormones

The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.
A) connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
B) is partly contained within the infundibulum
C) conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis
D) is the site of prolactin synthesis

B) is partly contained within the infundibulum

Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?
A) polyuria
B) polydipsia
C) polyphagia
D) polycythemia

D) polycythemia

Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?
A) blood levels of hormone
B) type of hormone
C) number of receptors for that hormone
D) strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone

B) type of hormone

Oxytocin ________.
A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
B) is an adenohypophyseal secretion
C) exerts its most important effects during menstruation
D) controls milk production

A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

ADH ________.
A) increases urine production
B) promotes dehydration
C) is produced in the adenohypophysis
D) is inhibited by alcohol

D) is inhibited by alcohol

Which of the folowing is not a type of hormone interaction?
A) permissiveness
B) synergism
C) anatagonism
D) feedback

D) feedback

Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
A) activates or deactivates enzymes
B) stimulates production of an action potential
C) alters plasma membrane permeability
D) induces secretory activity

B) stimulates production of an action potential

Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

A) a change in membrane potential
B) the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
C) an increase in enzymatic activity
D) direct control of the nervous system

D. direct control of the nervous system

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
D) nothingall hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific

C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.
A) hepatic portal system
B) general circulatory system
C) hypophyseal portal system
D) feedback loop

C) hypophyseal portal system

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.
A) it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release
B) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional
C) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location
D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
B) finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
C) stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen
D) increasing blood pressure

A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
A) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
B) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
C) not responding to a feedback mechanism
D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.
A) peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers
B) hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
C) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
D) the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit

C) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.
A) insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
C) growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
D) glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone

B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
A) estrogen
B) epinephrine
C) angiotensinogen
D) renin

B) epinephrine

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
A) the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates
B) catabolic inhibition
C) protein synthesis
D) humoral stimulation

D) humoral stimulation

The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
A) the blood vessels
B) the adrenal glands
C) the liver
D) bones and skeletal muscles

D) bones and skeletal muscles

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.
A) blocking the action of growth hormone
B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
C) antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
D) slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity

B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released

Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
A) the heart
B) the kidney
C) the skin
D) the spleen

A) the heart

Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.
A) testosterone
B) estrogen
C) cortisol
D) epinephrine

C) cortisol

Leptin is secreted by ________.
A) lymphocytes
B) adipocytes
C) goblet cells
D) fibroblasts

B) adipocytes

The most important mineralcorticoid regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.
A) insulin
B) aldosterone
C) glucagon
D) cortisol

B) aldosterone

Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?
A) estrogen
B) aldosterone
C) epinephrine
D) cortisone

C) epinephrine

The single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood is:
A) calcitonin
B) parathyroid hormone
C) thyroid hormone
D) gondadotropic hormones

B) parathyroid hormone

Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.
A) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
B) cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
C) formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
D) hormone binding to intracellular receptors

A) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems

Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.
A) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing blood to the pituitary
B) enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary
C) travel by arteries to the pituitary
D) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system

D) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system

ACTH ________.
A) is secreted by the posterior pituitary
B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic regulatory hormone
C) causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla
D) is not a tropic hormone

B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic regulatory hormone

Aldosterone ________.
A) is secreted by the neurohypophysis
B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
C) presence increases potassium concentration in the blood
D) production is greatly influenced by ACTH

B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption

Which organ does not produce hormones?
A) heart
B) kidney
C) spleen
D) skin

C) spleen

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.
A) the cell's sensitivity reaction
B) cellular affinity
C) up-regulation
D) a reaction to a stressor

C) up-regulation

A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.
A) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males.
B) The physician is wronga hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertility.
C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
D) The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.

C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.

Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
A) It causes positive feedback.
B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
C) It is very specific in the cell type it targets.
D) It is a stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells.

B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.

How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?
A) by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
B) by decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure
C) by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
D) by blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response

A) by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acidbased hormones?
A) iron
B) calcium
C) sodium
D) chlorine

B) calcium

FILL IN THE BLANK: Which hormones are synthesized from cholesterol?

Steroids

FILL IN THE BLANK: Which hormone has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts?

Prolactin

FILL IN THE BLANK: Acromegaly and gigantism are the result of _______ of growth hormone.

hypersecretion

FILL IN THE BLANK: The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ________.

thyroid

FILL IN THE BLANK: Which hormone stimulates production of RBCs?

erythropoietin

FILL IN THE BLANK: Alpha islet cells produce ________, an extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone.

glucagon

FILL IN THE BLANK: The ________ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity.

pineal

FILL IN THE BLANK: The ________ gland is especially large in early childhood; then declines in size and function with age.

thymus

FILL IN THE BLANK: Hypersecretion of growth hormone after epiphyseal plate closure can result in a condition called _____.

acromegaly

FILL IN THE BLANK: As a result of stress the adenohypophysis releases ________, which stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex that retain sodium and water, increase blood sugar, and begin breaking down fats.

ACTH

SHORT ANSWER: Compare the structure and function of endocrine and exocrine glands

- Endocrine glands are ductless, and release to the blood to be transported to other organs
- Exocrine glands have ducts through which products are released

SHORT ANSWER: Why should the hypothalamus instead of the adenohypophysis be called the "master endocrine gland"

-Adenohypophysis has many hormonal products
-The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary activity through regulatory factors

SHORT ANSWER: Why would one not expect to continue increasing in height

-Growth hormone decreases with age.
-Closure of epiphyseal plates prohibits further growth in long bones

SHORT ANSWER: A woman iwth excessive body hair, deep voice, and enlarged clitoris shows the outward symptoms of which hormonal dysfunction

- Hypersecretion of androgens

SHORT ANSWER: A person who drinks a lot of alcoholic beverages must urinate frequently. Why?

Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion

SHORT ANSWER: How is the heart involved as an endocrine gland

- few cardiac cells create ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE (ANP)
- helps regulate sallt output by kidney
- ANP inhibits aldosterone and signals the kidney to remove more salt

SHORT ANSWER: Briefly discuss target cell activation by hormone-receptor interaction

Setp 1: binding to target cell, but depends on:
- blood levels of hormone
- relative number of receptors on or in target cell
- affinity of the union between hormone and receptor

SHORT ANSWER: Glucagon and insulin both target cells of the liver and are both made in the pancrease yet have very different effects on the cells they target. What accounts for this fact.

- They use different cell surface receptors

SHORT ANSWER: Basal metabolism declines with age. What factors contribute to that decline

- thyroid follicles fill with colloid, fibrosis occurs
- decline in hormone synthesis and release
- increase in body fat relative to muscle, muscle is more active metabollically than fat

SHORT ANSWER: List 4 mechanisms involved in the regulation of aldosterone

1. the renin-angiotensin mechanism
2. plasma concentration of Na+ and K+
3. Control exerted by ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
4. Plasma concentration of ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide)

SHORT ANSWER: What is the difference between autocrines and paracrines

- AUTOCRINES: self regulating, target is cel they were manufactured from
- PARACRINES: act locally, only affect cells immediately around them

SHORT ANSWER: Give an example of synergism in hormones

-liver will release glucose in presence of glucagon or epinepherine.
-if both are present amount of glucose is released is 150%

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