Bessemer converter process allows steel to be made quickly and inexpensively
First Oil Well is struck in Titusville, Pennsylvania
First transcontinental railroad is completed at Promontory, Utah
Alexander Graham patents his telephone
Thomas A. Edison makes first lightbulb
Great Railroad Strike
J.D Rockefeller organizes standar oil trust
In the hay market incident, a bomb set off at a chicago labor rally kills and wounds police officers
American Federation of Labor is organized (Samuel Gompers)
J.P Morgan creates U.S Steel Corporation (First Billion Dollar company)
What were the different approaches to the Reconstruction of the Confederate States?
Abraham Lincoln and his successor, southerner Andrew Johnson, wanted a lenient and quick plan for Reconstruction.
Lincoln Plan - 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction: any rebel state could form Union government when 10% of those voting in 1860 took oath of allegiance to the Constitution and Union and they received a Presidential Pardon. (not everyone could receive a pardon)
In his final public address, Lincoln pronounced that Southern States never left Union, they just were "out of their practical proper relation" and the object was to get them back into "proper relation." He proposed the creation of new state governments and wanted no persecution or radical reconstruction of Southern social and economic life.
Lincoln's assassination made many northerners favor the Radical Republicans, who wanted to end the grasp of the old planter class on the South's society and economy and they wanted to deconstruct the Democratic Party. Radical Republicans wanted a sweeping transformation of southern society based upon granting freed slaves full citizenship. They wanted to require a majority(not just 10%) of white male citizens in Southern states to take an ironclad oath of allegiance. (They wanted vindictiveness.)
Congressional Reconstruction included the stipulation that to reenter the Union, former Confederate states had to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Congress also passed the Military Reconstruction Act, which attempted to protect the voting rights and civil rights of African Americans.
How did white southerners respond to the end of the old order in the South?
Many white southerners blamed their poverty on freed slaves and Yankees. White mobs attacked blacks in 1866 in Memphis and New Orleans. That year, the Ku Klux Klan was formed as a social club; its members soon began to intimidate freedmen and white Republicans. Despite government action, violence continued and even escalated in the South.
To what extent did blacks function as citizens in the reconstructed South?
Newly freed slaves suffered economically. Most did not have the resources to succeed in the aftermath of the war's devastation. There was no redistribution
of land; former slaves were given their freedom but nothing else. The Freedmen's Bureau attempted to educate and aid freed slaves and reunite families. Many former slaves found comfort in their families and the independent churches they established. Some took part in state and local government under the last, radical phase of Reconstruction.
What were the main issues in national politics in the 1870's?
During Ulysses S. Grant's administration, fiscal issues dominated politics. Paper money (greenbacks) was regarded as inflationary; and agrarian and debtor groups opposed its withdrawal from circulation. Many members of Grant's administration were corrupt; scandals involved an attempt to corner the gold market, construction of the intercontinental railroad, and the whiskey ring's plan to steal millions of dollars in tax revenue.
Why did Reconstruction end in 1877?
Most southern states had completed the requirements of Reconstruction by 1876. The presidential election returns of that year were so close that a special commission was established to count contested electoral votes. A decision hammered out at a secret meeting gave the presidency to the Republican, Rutherford B. Hayes; in return, the Democrats were promised that the last federal troops would be withdrawn from Louisiana and South Carolina, putting an end to the Radical Republican administrations in the southern states.
Freedman's Bureau (p. 542)
1865 - First federal experiment in social welfare.
Run by General Oliver O. Howard
created within the War Department
Bureau of Refugees, freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
to provide such issues of provisions, clothing and fuel as might be need to relieve destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children.
declared that freed slaves "must be free to choose their own employers, and be paid"
Freedman's Bureau agents negotiated labor contracts, provided medical care, distributed food, and set up schools. Also established its own courts to deal with labor disputes and land titles.
John Wilkes Booth (p.544)
A crazed actor and Confederate sympathizer, who fired his pistol point-blank at Abraham Lincoln's head and assassinated him on April 14, 1865 at Ford's Theatre. (He also stabbed Lincoln's aid.)
He was tracked down and killed in a burning barn.
Four of his collaborators were hanged, along with a woman who owned a boarding house.
Andrew Johnson (p. 544)
Vice-President who became President after Lincoln's assassination. From Tennessee. Combative man, lacked presidential virtues. Bigoted and
An advocate of small farmers and in opposition to the large planters.
Believed in strict adherence to the Constitution and limited government.
Passed the Proclamation of Amnesty 1865 to allow everyone with taxable property of $20,000 to apply for amnesty.
Plan for readmitting former Confederate states-
Each state would have a native Unionist governor, they had to invalidate the secession ordinances, abolish slavery, repudiate all debts incurred to aid the Confederacy, ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, and endorse limited black suffrage
black codes (p. 546)
designed to restrict the freedom of African Americans - Southern whites attempt to preserve slavery as nearly as possible. Black codes varied from state to state. Marriages were recognized (none interracial), blacks could own property, sue and be sued. In some states they could not own farmland or had to buy special licenses to practice certain trades. few states allowed them to serve on a jury. Basically, aspects of slavery were simply being restored in another guise.
Thaddeus Stevens (p. 547)
Radical Republican from Pennsylvania - appointed to serve on a Joint Committee on Reconstruction
Fourteenth Amendment (p. 549)
Enacted to remove doubt about the legality of the new Civil Rights Act.
1866- Congress passed it
1868 - States Ratified it
Went far beyond the Civil Rights Act by establishing a constitutional guarantee of basic citizenship for all Americans, including African Americans.
the state and federal citizenship of persons born or naturalized in the U.S. and forbid any state to "abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens", to "deprive any person Life, Liberty, or Property", without due process of law", or to "deny any person equal protection of these laws."
Fifteenth Amendment (p. 553)
1870 - ratified
forbids the states to deny any person the vote on grounds of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
Northerners who allegedly rushed South with all their belongings in carpetbags to grab the political spoils - usually Union veterans
Native white Republicans living in the South, who were detested by most Southerners.
Credit Mobilier scandal (p.562)
A scam construction company run by directors of the Union Pacific Railroad who had milked the Union Pacific for exorbitant fees in order to line the pockets of the insiders who controlled both firms. Union Pacific shareholders were left holding the bag. The schemers bought political support by giving congressmen shares of stock in the enterprise. Many of Grant's cabinet members were involved in this scandal.
Horace Greeley (p. 564)
1872 Presidential candidate endorsed by the Liberal Republicans. Editor of the New york Tribune - did not win the total Republican nomination.
Compromise of 1877 (p.567)
Stemmed from the 1876 Presidential elections, when a special Electoral Commission was established to decide the winner. Secret bargain struck. Republicans promised that if Rutherford B. Hayes were elected, that he would withdraw the last federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina and Democrats promised to withdraw their opposition to Hayes, accept in good faith the Reconstruction amendment and refrain from reprisals against Republicans in the South.
Morrill Land Grant Act
Conveyed 30,000 acres of federal land per member of Congress from the State. The sale of some of the land provided funds to create colleges of "agriculture and mechanic arts".
Name some major events taking place in Congress in 1862
Congress passed the Morrill Land Grant Act
Congress guaranteed the construction of a transcontinental railroad
Congress passed the Homestead Act
In 1864, Lincoln refused to sign which bill?
The Wade-Davis Bill
Congress set up the Freedman's Bureau in what year? What was it?
Date of Lincoln assassination
April 14, 1865
Date of Ku Klux Klan organization -
What important event took place in Congress in 1866 - name and describe it.
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act
What two important things did Congress pass in 1867?
Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act
Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act
When was the Fourteenth Amendment ratified?
When did Congress impeach Andrew Johnson and what happened?
Congress impeached Andrew Johnson in 1868, however the Senate failed to convict him.
He deliberately violated the Tenure of Office Act by suspending Secretary of War Stanton and naming General Ulysses S. Grant in his place.
When did Reconstruction end?
In 1877 when the Compromise of 1877 was passed.
What did the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865 do?
It abolished slavery everywhere.
Approximately how long did Reconstruction last?
From 1865 to 1877
doubled the average level of import duties
The National Banking Act
created a uniform system of banking and bank-note currency and helped finance the war.
What route did the first transcontinental railroad take?
Along a north-central route from Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California
Homestead Act of 1862
Congress provided free federal homesteads of 160 acres to settlers, who only had to occupy the land for five years to gain title. No cash was needed.
Morrill Land Grant Act
1862 - conveyed to each state 30,00 acres of federal land per member of Congress from the state. The sale of some of the land provided funds to create colleges of "agriculture and mechanic arts."
Name some of the measures Congress used to stimulate the North's economy in the years after the Civil war.
It centralized national power and enacted the Republican economic agenda.
Morrill Tariff Act
National Banking Act
Helped build first transcontinental railroad
passed the Homestead Act of 1862
and the Morrill Land Grant Act.
What was the Dred Scott Decision?
1858, had declared that enslaved Africans and their descendants were not eligible for citizenship.
Emancipation Proclamation of 1863
implied that former slaves would become U.S. citizens, but citizenship was defined and protected by state law, and the southern states in 1865 did not have state governments.
Civil Rights Act
1866 - declared "all persons born in the U.S. and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed," were citizens entitled to "full and equal benefit of all laws."
Command of the Army Act-
required that all orders from the commander in chief go through the headquarters of the general of the army.
Tenure of Office Act-
required Senate permission for the president to removed any federal officeholder whose whose appointment the Senate had confirmed.
What was the Military Reconstruction Act
provided voting rights to freed slaves almost immediately after emancipation. The nation's first effort in military-enforced nation building. Declared that "no legal state governments or adequate protection for life and property now exists in the rebel states." Southern States divided into military districts, new state constitutions had to beestablished,had to guarantee the right to vote to blacks, ratify the 14th Amendment, and only then could southern states be entitled to representation in Congress.