Modern Biology Chapter 18 Introduction to Ecology Vocabulary

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Modern Biology book by Postlethwait and Hopson Copyright 2006 Chapter 18 "Introduction to Ecology" Vocabulary

Ecology

the study of interactions between organishms and the living and nonliving components of their environment

Interdependence

the dependence of every organism on its connections with other living and nonliving parts of its environment

Ecological Models

a representation or description of the components of an ecological system

Biosphere

the bradest, most inclusive level of organisation;the thin volume of Earth and its atmosphere that supports life

Ecosystem

the level of organization that includes all of the organisms and nonliving environment found in a patriculat place

Community

the level of organization that includes the interacting organisms living in an area

Population

the level of organization that includes all the members of a species that live in one place at one time

Habitat

the place where an organism lives

Biotic Factors

the living components of an environment

Abiotic Factors

the nonliving compnents of an environment

Tolerance Curve

a graph of performance versus value of an environmental variable

Acclimation

the process by which organisms can adust thier tolerance to abiotic factors

Comformers

organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions

Regulators

organisms that use energy to control some of thier internal conditions

Dormancy

a state of reduced activity to escape unsuitable conditions

Migration

to move to a more favorable habitat to escape unsuitable conditions

Niche

the specific role of a secies within is environment

Generalists

species with broad niches

Specialists

species that have narrow niches

Producers

organisms that can capture energy and use it to make organic molecules

Chemosynthesis

the process in which autotrophic bacteria use energy stored in inorganic molecules to produce carbohydrates

Gross Primary Productivity

the rate which producers in an ecosystem capture the energy of sunlight by producing organic compounds

Biomass

the organic material that has been produced in an ecosystem

Net Primary Productivity

the rate at which biomass accumulates

Consumers

organisms that cannot manufacture thier own food and eat other organisms

Herbavores

organisms that eat producers

Carnivores

organisms that eat consumers

Omnivores

organisms that eat both producers and consumers

Detrivores

organisms that eat the "garbage" of an ecosystestem

Trophic Level

an organism's position in a sequence of energy transfers

Food Chain

a single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer

Food Web

interrelated food chains in an ecosystem

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