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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Energy Carriers
  2. ETC without )₂
  3. Alcohol Fermentation
  4. Net reaction of Citric Acid Cycle per glucose molecule
  5. Cytochrome a₃
  1. a - molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD
  2. b - without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
  3. c - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  4. d - last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O
  5. e 2 Acetyl CoA + 6 NAD⁺ + 2 FAD + 2 ATP + 2Pi + 4H₂O


    4 CO₂ + 6 NADH + 2 FADH₂ + 2 ATP + 4 H⁺ + 2 CoA

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate
  2. - categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase
  3. - most of the molecules of the ETC
    - electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in structure of their active site
    - functional unit contains a central iron atom, which is capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction
  4. - known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain
  5. - first molecule of the ETC
    - reduced when it accepts electrons from NADH, therefore oxidizing NADH to NAD⁺

5 True/False questions

  1. Lactic Acid Fermentation- occurs in certain fungi and bacteria and in human muscle cells during strenuous activity
    - happens when oxygen supply to muscle cells lags behind the rate of glucose catabolism
    - pyruvate generated is reduced to lactic acid, which can lower blood pH if accumulated, eventually becomes muscle fatigue
    - oxygen debt: the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize lactic acid back to pyruvate and enters cellular respiration


  2. Alternate Energy Sources- when glucose supplies run low, the body uses these (in order): carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    - these are first converted to either glucose or glucose intermediates, which can be degraded in the glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle


  3. Substrate Level Phosphorylation- ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP


  4. ADP- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)


  5. FADflavin adenine dinucleotide


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