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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Net reaction of photosynthesis
  2. AMP
  3. Carrier Coenzymes
  4. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
  5. Oxidation
  1. a - loss of an electron
    - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺ are referred to as oxidizing agents because they cause other molecules to lose electrons and undergo oxidation (while they're reduced NADH, FADH₂, NADPH)
  2. b - adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole
  3. c 6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
  4. d - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  5. e - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺
    - transport the high energy electrons of the hydrogen atoms to a series of carrier moelcules on the inner mitochondrial membrane (electron transport chain)

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only
  2. ...
  3. - known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain
  4. - gain of electrons
  5. - most of the molecules of the ETC
    - electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in structure of their active site
    - functional unit contains a central iron atom, which is capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction

5 True/False Questions

  1. Oxidative Phosphorylation- ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP

          

  2. Energy Carriers- molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD

          

  3. Proton Gradient- as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space

          

  4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- a complex carrier mechanism located on the inside of the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - two parts: electron transfer and ATP generation + the proton pump

          

  5. Cytochrome a₃- last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O

          

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