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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. AMP
  2. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
  3. NAD⁺
  4. ETC without )₂
  5. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  1. a - ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP
  2. b nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide
  3. c - without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
  4. d - adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole
  5. e - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺
    - transport the high energy electrons of the hydrogen atoms to a series of carrier moelcules on the inner mitochondrial membrane (electron transport chain)
  2. - as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space
  3. - last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O
  4. - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain, where ATP is produced via oxidative phosporylation
    - each molecule of glucose = 2 pyruvates
    2x3 NADH --> 6 NADH
    2x1 FADH₂ --> 2 FADH₂
    2x1 GTP (ATP) --> 2 ATP
  5. - gain of electrons

5 True/False questions

  1. Fate of Pyruvate- anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria


  2. Glucose Catabolism- the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)


  3. Autotrophic- green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds


  4. Net reaction of photosynthesis6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂


  5. Cellular Metabolism- most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain


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