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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. FMN (flavin mononuclotide)
  2. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  3. Alternate Energy Sources
  4. Cellular Respiration
  5. NAD⁺
  1. a nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide
  2. b - most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
  3. c - ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP
  4. d - first molecule of the ETC
    - reduced when it accepts electrons from NADH, therefore oxidizing NADH to NAD⁺
  5. e - when glucose supplies run low, the body uses these (in order): carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    - these are first converted to either glucose or glucose intermediates, which can be degraded in the glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Event --> Location

    glycolysis -- cytoplasm
    fermentation -- cytoplasm
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA -- mitochondrial matrix
    TCA cycle -- mitochondrial matrix
    ETC - inner mintochondrial matrix
  2. - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  3. - most of the molecules of the ETC
    - electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in structure of their active site
    - functional unit contains a central iron atom, which is capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction
  4. - as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space
  5. - fructose 1,6-diphosphate is split into dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
    - dihydroxyacetone is isomerized into PGAL
    - two molecules of PGAL is formed per molecule of glucose
    - 1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
    - net production of 2 ATP/mole of glucose (4 generated, 2 used up)

5 True/False questions

  1. ATP- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

          

  2. The Citric Acid Cyle (TCA Cycle)- electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain, where ATP is produced via oxidative phosporylation
    - each molecule of glucose = 2 pyruvates
    2x3 NADH --> 6 NADH
    2x1 FADH₂ --> 2 FADH₂
    2x1 GTP (ATP) --> 2 ATP

          

  3. Review of Glucose Catabolismoccurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration

          

  4. Electron Carriers- categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase

          

  5. Net Reaction for Glycolysisglucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD⁺

    -->

    2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H⁺ + 2H₂O

          

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