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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Proteins
  2. Net reaction of photosynthesis
  3. Alcohol Fermentation
  4. ATP Generation and the Proton Pump
  5. Proton-Motive Force
  1. a - there are energy losses as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next, this energy is then used to synthesize 1 ATP per complex
    - since we have 3 complexes, we generate 3 ATP
    - NADH delivers its electrons to NADH dehydrogenase complex, so for each NADH = 3 ATP
    - FADH₂ bypasses the NADH dehydrogenase complex and delivers directly to carrier Q (ubiquinone), which is between complex 1 and 2, so each FADH₂ = 2 ATP
  2. b - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  3. c - the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle
  4. d - from proton gradient
    - drives H+ back across inner membrane and into the matrix
    - membrane is impermeable to ions, so H⁺ must flow through specialized channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
    - as H⁺ pass through ATP synthetases, energy is released to allow for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
    - oxidative phosphorylation: coupling of oxidation of NADH with phosphorylation of ADP
  5. e 6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. - Net amount of ATP = ATP by substrate level phosphorylation + ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
    - Substrate level = 1 glucose = ATP from glycolysis + (1 ATP x 2 turn of Citric Acid Cycle) ---> 4 ATP
    - Oxidative = 32 ATP
    - Total = 36 ATP
  2. - fructose 1,6-diphosphate is split into dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
    - dihydroxyacetone is isomerized into PGAL
    - two molecules of PGAL is formed per molecule of glucose
    - 1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
    - net production of 2 ATP/mole of glucose (4 generated, 2 used up)
  3. - series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, the production of ATP and reduction of NAD⁺ into NADH
    - occurs in cytoplasm
    - mediated by specific enzymes
  4. - green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds
  5. nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide

5 True/False Questions

  1. Substrate Level Phosphorylation- ATP synthesis is directly coupled with the degradation of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule like NAD⁺

          

  2. Fats- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

          

  3. Fate of Pyruvate- disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate

          

  4. Alternate Energy Sources- molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD

          

  5. NADP⁺nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide

          

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