NAME

Question Types


Start With


Question Limit

of 45 available terms

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Alcohol Fermentation
  2. FMN (flavin mononuclotide)
  3. Glucose Catabolism - event and location
  4. Reduction
  5. Glycolytic Pathway
  1. a Event --> Location

    glycolysis -- cytoplasm
    fermentation -- cytoplasm
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA -- mitochondrial matrix
    TCA cycle -- mitochondrial matrix
    ETC - inner mintochondrial matrix
  2. b - gain of electrons
  3. c - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  4. d - first molecule of the ETC
    - reduced when it accepts electrons from NADH, therefore oxidizing NADH to NAD⁺
  5. e - fructose 1,6-diphosphate is split into dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
    - dihydroxyacetone is isomerized into PGAL
    - two molecules of PGAL is formed per molecule of glucose
    - 1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
    - net production of 2 ATP/mole of glucose (4 generated, 2 used up)

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. 2 Acetyl CoA + 6 NAD⁺ + 2 FAD + 2 ATP + 2Pi + 4H₂O

    -->

    4 CO₂ + 6 NADH + 2 FADH₂ + 2 ATP + 4 H⁺ + 2 CoA
  2. - stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride
    - when needed, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, and are carried by the blood to other tissues for oxidation
    - glycerol can be converted into PGAL
    - a fatty acid must be "activated" first in the cytoplasm, this requires 2 ATP
    - on active, it is transorted into mitochondrion and taken through a series of "beta-oxidation cycles" that convert it into two carbon fragments, then converted to acetyl CoA, which enter TCA cycle.
    - each round of beta oxidation generates 1 NADH and 1 FADH₂
    -fats yield the most ATP per gram
  3. ...
  4. - the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle
  5. - there are energy losses as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next, this energy is then used to synthesize 1 ATP per complex
    - since we have 3 complexes, we generate 3 ATP
    - NADH delivers its electrons to NADH dehydrogenase complex, so for each NADH = 3 ATP
    - FADH₂ bypasses the NADH dehydrogenase complex and delivers directly to carrier Q (ubiquinone), which is between complex 1 and 2, so each FADH₂ = 2 ATP

5 True/False Questions

  1. Oxidative Phosphorylation- ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP

          

  2. ATP- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

          

  3. Proton-Motive Force- as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space

          

  4. Proton Gradient- as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space

          

  5. Oxidation- loss of an electron
    - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺ are referred to as oxidizing agents because they cause other molecules to lose electrons and undergo oxidation (while they're reduced NADH, FADH₂, NADPH)

          

Create Set