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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Oxidation
  2. Cytochrome a₃
  3. ATP Generation and the Proton Pump
  4. ETC without )₂
  5. Autotrophic
  1. a - there are energy losses as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next, this energy is then used to synthesize 1 ATP per complex
    - since we have 3 complexes, we generate 3 ATP
    - NADH delivers its electrons to NADH dehydrogenase complex, so for each NADH = 3 ATP
    - FADH₂ bypasses the NADH dehydrogenase complex and delivers directly to carrier Q (ubiquinone), which is between complex 1 and 2, so each FADH₂ = 2 ATP
  2. b - last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O
  3. c - green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds
  4. d - without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
  5. e - loss of an electron
    - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺ are referred to as oxidizing agents because they cause other molecules to lose electrons and undergo oxidation (while they're reduced NADH, FADH₂, NADPH)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space
  2. - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  3. - from proton gradient
    - drives H+ back across inner membrane and into the matrix
    - membrane is impermeable to ions, so H⁺ must flow through specialized channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
    - as H⁺ pass through ATP synthetases, energy is released to allow for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
    - oxidative phosphorylation: coupling of oxidation of NADH with phosphorylation of ADP
  4. ...
  5. - Net amount of ATP = ATP by substrate level phosphorylation + ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
    - Substrate level = 1 glucose = ATP from glycolysis + (1 ATP x 2 turn of Citric Acid Cycle) ---> 4 ATP
    - Oxidative = 32 ATP
    - Total = 36 ATP

5 True/False questions

  1. Alternate Energy Sources- molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD

          

  2. NAD⁺- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only

          

  3. Fats- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

          

  4. Net Reaction for Glycolysisglucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD⁺

    -->

    2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H⁺ + 2H₂O

          

  5. Fermentation- regeneration NAD⁺ to continue glycolysis without O₂
    - reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid
    - fermentation produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule

          

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