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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Fate of Pyruvate
  2. ATP
  3. Review of Glucose Catabolism
  4. Alternate Energy Sources
  5. The Citric Acid Cyle continued
  1. a - when glucose supplies run low, the body uses these (in order): carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    - these are first converted to either glucose or glucose intermediates, which can be degraded in the glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle
  2. b - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain, where ATP is produced via oxidative phosporylation
    - each molecule of glucose = 2 pyruvates
    2x3 NADH --> 6 NADH
    2x1 FADH₂ --> 2 FADH₂
    2x1 GTP (ATP) --> 2 ATP
  3. c - Net amount of ATP = ATP by substrate level phosphorylation + ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
    - Substrate level = 1 glucose = ATP from glycolysis + (1 ATP x 2 turn of Citric Acid Cycle) ---> 4 ATP
    - Oxidative = 32 ATP
    - Total = 36 ATP
  4. d - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria
  5. e - adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. occurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration
  2. - categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase
  3. - first molecule of the ETC
    - reduced when it accepts electrons from NADH, therefore oxidizing NADH to NAD⁺
  4. - regeneration NAD⁺ to continue glycolysis without O₂
    - reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid
    - fermentation produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule
  5. - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA

5 True/False Questions

  1. Proton Gradient- the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle

          

  2. Lactic Acid Fermentation- occurs in certain fungi and bacteria and in human muscle cells during strenuous activity
    - happens when oxygen supply to muscle cells lags behind the rate of glucose catabolism
    - pyruvate generated is reduced to lactic acid, which can lower blood pH if accumulated, eventually becomes muscle fatigue
    - oxygen debt: the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize lactic acid back to pyruvate and enters cellular respiration

          

  3. ADP- adenosine diphosphate
    - Pi: inorganic phosphate
    - ATP --> ADP + Pi + 7 kcal/mole
    - the 7 kcal/mole provides energy for endergonic/endothermic reactions like muscle contraction, motility and active transport across plasma membranes

          

  4. Autotrophic- obtain energy catabolically
    - break down organic nutrients that must be ingested

          

  5. Cytochrome a₃- last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O

          

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