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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. ATP
  2. Heterotrophic
  3. Alternate Energy Sources
  4. Reduction
  5. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
  1. a - adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)
  2. b - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  3. c - obtain energy catabolically
    - break down organic nutrients that must be ingested
  4. d - when glucose supplies run low, the body uses these (in order): carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    - these are first converted to either glucose or glucose intermediates, which can be degraded in the glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle
  5. e - gain of electrons

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds
  2. Event --> Location

    glycolysis -- cytoplasm
    fermentation -- cytoplasm
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA -- mitochondrial matrix
    TCA cycle -- mitochondrial matrix
    ETC - inner mintochondrial matrix
  3. - disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate
  4. - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria
  5. - categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase

5 True/False questions

  1. ETC without )₂- without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane

          

  2. Proteins- the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle

          

  3. Net Reaction for Glycolysis6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂

          

  4. Review of Glucose Catabolism- Net amount of ATP = ATP by substrate level phosphorylation + ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
    - Substrate level = 1 glucose = ATP from glycolysis + (1 ATP x 2 turn of Citric Acid Cycle) ---> 4 ATP
    - Oxidative = 32 ATP
    - Total = 36 ATP

          

  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation- occurs in certain fungi and bacteria and in human muscle cells during strenuous activity
    - happens when oxygen supply to muscle cells lags behind the rate of glucose catabolism
    - pyruvate generated is reduced to lactic acid, which can lower blood pH if accumulated, eventually becomes muscle fatigue
    - oxygen debt: the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize lactic acid back to pyruvate and enters cellular respiration

          

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