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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. NADP⁺
  2. Proton-Motive Force
  3. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  4. Autotrophic
  5. Fermentation
  1. a - regeneration NAD⁺ to continue glycolysis without O₂
    - reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid
    - fermentation produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule
  2. b - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only
  3. c - green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds
  4. d - ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP
  5. e - from proton gradient
    - drives H+ back across inner membrane and into the matrix
    - membrane is impermeable to ions, so H⁺ must flow through specialized channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
    - as H⁺ pass through ATP synthetases, energy is released to allow for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
    - oxidative phosphorylation: coupling of oxidation of NADH with phosphorylation of ADP

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺
    - transport the high energy electrons of the hydrogen atoms to a series of carrier moelcules on the inner mitochondrial membrane (electron transport chain)
  2. - the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)
  3. - stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride
    - when needed, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, and are carried by the blood to other tissues for oxidation
    - glycerol can be converted into PGAL
    - a fatty acid must be "activated" first in the cytoplasm, this requires 2 ATP
    - on active, it is transorted into mitochondrion and taken through a series of "beta-oxidation cycles" that convert it into two carbon fragments, then converted to acetyl CoA, which enter TCA cycle.
    - each round of beta oxidation generates 1 NADH and 1 FADH₂
    -fats yield the most ATP per gram
  4. occurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration
  5. - adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole

5 True/False Questions

  1. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase

          

  2. Energy Carriers- molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD

          

  3. Glycolytic Pathway- series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, the production of ATP and reduction of NAD⁺ into NADH
    - occurs in cytoplasm
    - mediated by specific enzymes

          

  4. Cellular Respiration- the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)

          

  5. ATP- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

          

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