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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. AMP
  2. Energy Carriers
  3. Glycolysis
  4. The Citric Acid Cyle (TCA Cycle)
  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation
  1. a - occurs in certain fungi and bacteria and in human muscle cells during strenuous activity
    - happens when oxygen supply to muscle cells lags behind the rate of glucose catabolism
    - pyruvate generated is reduced to lactic acid, which can lower blood pH if accumulated, eventually becomes muscle fatigue
    - oxygen debt: the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize lactic acid back to pyruvate and enters cellular respiration
  2. b - known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain
  3. c - molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD
  4. d - adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole
  5. e - series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, the production of ATP and reduction of NAD⁺ into NADH
    - occurs in cytoplasm
    - mediated by specific enzymes

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺
    - transport the high energy electrons of the hydrogen atoms to a series of carrier moelcules on the inner mitochondrial membrane (electron transport chain)
  2. - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  3. - without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
  4. - loss of an electron
    - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺ are referred to as oxidizing agents because they cause other molecules to lose electrons and undergo oxidation (while they're reduced NADH, FADH₂, NADPH)
  5. - disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate

5 True/False questions

  1. Autotrophic- obtain energy catabolically
    - break down organic nutrients that must be ingested

          

  2. NADP⁺nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide

          

  3. Reduction- gain of electrons

          

  4. Cellular Metabolism- the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)

          

  5. Proton Gradient- the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle

          

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