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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Glycolytic Pathway
  2. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
  3. Proteins
  4. Net reaction of photosynthesis
  5. Reduction
  1. a - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  2. b - the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle
  3. c - gain of electrons
  4. d 6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
  5. e - fructose 1,6-diphosphate is split into dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
    - dihydroxyacetone is isomerized into PGAL
    - two molecules of PGAL is formed per molecule of glucose
    - 1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
    - net production of 2 ATP/mole of glucose (4 generated, 2 used up)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)
  2. - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain, where ATP is produced via oxidative phosporylation
    - each molecule of glucose = 2 pyruvates
    2x3 NADH --> 6 NADH
    2x1 FADH₂ --> 2 FADH₂
    2x1 GTP (ATP) --> 2 ATP
  3. - adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)
  4. - adenosine diphosphate
    - Pi: inorganic phosphate
    - ATP --> ADP + Pi + 7 kcal/mole
    - the 7 kcal/mole provides energy for endergonic/endothermic reactions like muscle contraction, motility and active transport across plasma membranes
  5. - categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase

5 True/False questions

  1. Net Reaction for Glycolysisglucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD⁺

    -->

    2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H⁺ + 2H₂O

          

  2. Cellular Respiration- most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain

          

  3. Oxidative Phosphorylation- ATP synthesis is directly coupled with the degradation of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule like NAD⁺

          

  4. Fate of Pyruvate- disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate

          

  5. NADP⁺nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide

          

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