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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Proton-Motive Force
  2. ATP Generation and the Proton Pump
  3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
  4. Fate of Pyruvate
  5. Glucose Catabolism - event and location
  1. a - there are energy losses as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next, this energy is then used to synthesize 1 ATP per complex
    - since we have 3 complexes, we generate 3 ATP
    - NADH delivers its electrons to NADH dehydrogenase complex, so for each NADH = 3 ATP
    - FADH₂ bypasses the NADH dehydrogenase complex and delivers directly to carrier Q (ubiquinone), which is between complex 1 and 2, so each FADH₂ = 2 ATP
  2. b Event --> Location

    glycolysis -- cytoplasm
    fermentation -- cytoplasm
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA -- mitochondrial matrix
    TCA cycle -- mitochondrial matrix
    ETC - inner mintochondrial matrix
  3. c - a complex carrier mechanism located on the inside of the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - two parts: electron transfer and ATP generation + the proton pump
  4. d - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria
  5. e - from proton gradient
    - drives H+ back across inner membrane and into the matrix
    - membrane is impermeable to ions, so H⁺ must flow through specialized channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
    - as H⁺ pass through ATP synthetases, energy is released to allow for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
    - oxidative phosphorylation: coupling of oxidation of NADH with phosphorylation of ADP

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. - most of the molecules of the ETC
    - electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in structure of their active site
    - functional unit contains a central iron atom, which is capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction
  2. - adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)
  3. ...
  4. - loss of an electron
    - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺ are referred to as oxidizing agents because they cause other molecules to lose electrons and undergo oxidation (while they're reduced NADH, FADH₂, NADPH)
  5. - adenosine diphosphate
    - Pi: inorganic phosphate
    - ATP --> ADP + Pi + 7 kcal/mole
    - the 7 kcal/mole provides energy for endergonic/endothermic reactions like muscle contraction, motility and active transport across plasma membranes

5 True/False Questions

  1. Cellular Respiration- most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain

          

  2. Energy Carriers- molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD

          

  3. Electron Carriers- categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase

          

  4. Carrier Coenzymes- NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺
    - transport the high energy electrons of the hydrogen atoms to a series of carrier moelcules on the inner mitochondrial membrane (electron transport chain)

          

  5. The Citric Acid Cyle continued- known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain

          

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