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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Synapsis
  2. Homologous Chromosomes
  3. Cytokinesis
  4. Telophase
  5. Seminal Fluid
  1. a chromosomes that code for the same trait, one inherited from each parent
  2. b - happens at the end of telophase
    - cytoplasm divides into two daughter cells
    - in animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms, cell membrane indents along the equator of the cell and cell split
  3. c - spindle apparatus disappears
    - new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
    - nucleoli reappears
    - chromosomes uncoil
    - cytokinesis occurs
  4. d - mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageways
    - semen: sperm + seminal fluid
    - produced by:
    a) seminal vesicles: fructose-rich fluid, serves as energy source
    b) prostate gland: alkaline milky fluid to protect from acidic environment in female's reproductive tract
    c) bulbourethral glands: small amount of viscous fluid, function unknown
  5. e homologous chromosomes come together and intertwine

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - immature ova
    - diploid cells that form by mitosis in the ovary
    - at birth, all of the primary oocyte that a female will produce during her lifetime are already in her ovaries
  2. - each chromosome is replicated so that during division, a complete copy can be distributed to each daughter cell
    - two identical sister chromatids held together at a region called the "centromere"
    - telomeres: ends of the chromosomes
    - 2 x 2N number of chromosomes
  3. - development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism
    - occurs naturally in certain lower organisms (bees and ants, some salamander)
    - eggs of some organisms can be induced to develop parthenogenetically (not done naturally)
    - since the organism develops from a haploid cell, all of its cells will be haploid
  4. - homologous chromosomes come together and intertwine
    - at this stage, chromosome consists of two sister chromatids
    - where recombination and crossing over happens, responsible for increased genetic diversity
  5. - lower, narrow end of the uterus
    - connects with the vaginal canal

5 True/False questions

  1. Acrosome- cap-like structure, over the anterior half of mature sperm's head
    - derived from Golgi apparatus
    - contains enzymes to penetrate the tough outer covering of the ovum
    - once in contact with ovum cell membrane, sperm forms a tubelike structure called the acrosomal process
    - acrosomal process extends and fuses with ovum and enters the ovum's cytoplasm

          

  2. G₂ Stage (postsynthetic gap)- cell continues to grow in size
    - assembly of new organelles and other cell structures continues

          

  3. Chiasmata- granular DNA during interphase

          

  4. Fertilization Membrane- happened 12-24 hours after ovulation
    - occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the fallopian tube
    - sperm travels through vaginal canal, cervix, uterus, and into the fallopian tubes to reach the ovum
    - sperm penetrates corona radiata, then zona pellucida, contact with ovum cell membrane, become acrosomal process, fuse sperm with ovum
    - sperm nucleus enters ovum's cytoplasm and ovum completes meiosis II

          

  5. Chromosome Movement- dependent on these cytoplasmic organelles
    - centrioles: found in pairs, cylindrical organelles
    - centrosome: an area outside the interphase nucleus
    - spindle fibers: composed of microtubules, appears near each pair of centrioles, radiate outward.
    - asters: spidle fibers in radiating structure
    - spindle apparatus: asters extending toward the center of the nucleus, shortens to move chromosomes toward
    opposite poles of the cell during the later stages of mitosis

          

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