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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Acrosome
  2. Oogenesis
  3. Prophase I
  4. G₁ Stage (presynthetic gap)
  5. Reproduction
  1. a - cap-like structure, over the anterior half of mature sperm's head
    - derived from Golgi apparatus
    - contains enzymes to penetrate the tough outer covering of the ovum
    - once in contact with ovum cell membrane, sperm forms a tubelike structure called the acrosomal process
    - acrosomal process extends and fuses with ovum and enters the ovum's cytoplasm
  2. b - a process by which an organism perpetuates itself and its species
    - divided into: cell division, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction
  3. c - homologous chromosomes come together and intertwine
    - at this stage, chromosome consists of two sister chromatids
    - where recombination and crossing over happens, responsible for increased genetic diversity
  4. d - intense biochemical activity and growth
    - cell doubles in size and new organelles are produced
    - passing "restriction point", where a cell is committed to continue through the rest of the cell cycle and divide
    - some cells like skeletal muscle cells and nerve cells never pass this point, and enter a nondividng phase sometimes referred to as G₀
    - 2N number of chromosomes
  5. e - production of female gametes
    - occurs in the ovarian follicles
    - one primary oocyte completes meiosis I per month after menarche
    - yields two secondary oocyte and a polar body
    - secondary oocyte is expelled from the follicle during ovulation
    - meiosis II doesn't occur till fertilization

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - disjunction: homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite poles of the cell
    - distribution of homologous chromosomes to intermediate daughter cells are random
  2. - chromosomes condense
    - centriole pairs separate and move toward opposite poles of cell
    - spindle apparatus form
    - nuclear membrane dissolves
    - kinetochores, attached kinetochore fibers, appear at the chromosome centromere
  3. - result when a single zygote splits into two embryos
    - if splitting occurs at the two-cell stage of development, embryos will have separate chorions and separate placentas
    - if it occurs at blastula stage, embryos only have one chorionic sac and share a placenta (and probably amnion)
  4. - mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageways
    - semen: sperm + seminal fluid
    - produced by:
    a) seminal vesicles: fructose-rich fluid, serves as energy source
    b) prostate gland: alkaline milky fluid to protect from acidic environment in female's reproductive tract
    c) bulbourethral glands: small amount of viscous fluid, function unknown
  5. - site of sperm deposition during intercourse
    - passageway through which a baby is expelled during childbirth

5 True/False questions

  1. Female Reproductive Anatomy- essentially genetic carbon copies of parent cells
    - identical to parent cells except for random mutations
    - different types: binary fission, budding, regeneration, parthenogenesis

          

  2. Cortical Reaction- triggered by acrosomal reaction
    - calcium ions released into the cytoplasm, initates a series of reaction to form the fertilization membrane
    - calcium ion also stimulates increase in ovum's metabolic rate
    - this is followed by fusion of the sperm nucleus with ovum nucleus to form a diploid zygote

          

  3. Chromatin- granular DNA during interphase

          

  4. Gametes- male: testes
    - female: ovaries

          

  5. Ovulation and Menopause- women ovulate about once every four weeks
    - menapause occurs between age 45 and 50
    - during menopause, ovaries become less sensitive to the hormones that stimulate follicle development (FSH and LH), and eventually they atrophy
    - remaining follicles disappear, estrogen and progesterone levels greatly decline and ovulation stops

          

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