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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Spermatogenesis
  2. Epididymus
  3. Zona Pellucida
  4. Homologous Chromosomes
  5. Meiosis II
  1. a - inner layer of the oocyte cell membrane
  2. b where sperm acquire motility and stored here till ejaculation
  3. c chromosomes that code for the same trait, one inherited from each parent
  4. d - doesn't occur until fertilization
    - triggered when zona pellucida and corona radiata are penetrated by a sperm cell
    - fertilization yields two haploid cells, a mature ovum and another polar body
    - the mature ovum is a large cell containing a lot of cytoplasm, RNA, organelles and nutrients needed by a developing embryo
  5. e - "sperm production"
    - occurs in seminiferous tubules
    - after a male reaches sexual maturity, about 3 million primary spermatocytes begin spermatogenesis per day
    - maturation takes about 65-75 days

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. - spermatogonia (diploid) differentiate into primary spermatocytes (diploid)
    - primary spermatocytes undergo the first meiotic division and yield two secondary spermatocytes (haploid)
    - secondary spermatocytes undergo second meiotic division and yield four spermatids (haploid)
    - spermatogonia (2N) --> 1° spermatocytes (2N) --> meiosis I --> 2° spermatocytes (N) --> spermatids (N) --> spermatozoa (N)
  2. - a nuclear membrane forms around each new nucleus
    - each chromosomes still consists of sister chromatids joined at the centromere
    - cells divide into two daughter cells
    - between cell divisions, there might be "interkinesis", a short rest period where chromosomes partically uncoil
  3. - the first time a female gets her period
  4. - triggered by acrosomal reaction
    - calcium ions released into the cytoplasm, initates a series of reaction to form the fertilization membrane
    - calcium ion also stimulates increase in ovum's metabolic rate
    - this is followed by fusion of the sperm nucleus with ovum nucleus to form a diploid zygote
  5. - development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism
    - occurs naturally in certain lower organisms (bees and ants, some salamander)
    - eggs of some organisms can be induced to develop parthenogenetically (not done naturally)
    - since the organism develops from a haploid cell, all of its cells will be haploid

5 True/False Questions

  1. Meiosis- similar to mitosis
    - not preceded by chromosomal replication


  2. Ovaries- female gonads
    - found in the abdominal cavity
    - produce eggs (ova)
    - secrete esterogen and progesterone
    - consist of thousands of follicles


  3. Sexual Reproduction- fusion of two gametes (specialized sex cells produced by each parent)
    - meiosis is the process where the sex cells are produced
    - mitosis preserves the diploid chromosome number while meiosis halves it
    - somatic cells undergo mitosis, gametocytes undergo meiosis
    - during fertilization, two haploid gametes fuse, restoring the diploid number


  4. Anaphase I- disjunction: homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite poles of the cell
    - distribution of homologous chromosomes to intermediate daughter cells are random


  5. Binary Fission- a process where a cell doubles its organelles and cytoplasm, replicates its DNA and then divides in two
    - unicellular organism: reproduction
    - multicellular organism: growth, development & replace old cells


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