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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Fertilization Membrane
  2. Corona Radiata
  3. Somatic Cells
  4. Parthenogenesis
  5. Chromosome Movement
  1. a - development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism
    - occurs naturally in certain lower organisms (bees and ants, some salamander)
    - eggs of some organisms can be induced to develop parthenogenetically (not done naturally)
    - since the organism develops from a haploid cell, all of its cells will be haploid
  2. b - hard layer that surrounds the ovum cell membrane
    - prevents multiple fertilizations
  3. c - outer layer of the oocyte cell membrane
  4. d - dependent on these cytoplasmic organelles
    - centrioles: found in pairs, cylindrical organelles
    - centrosome: an area outside the interphase nucleus
    - spindle fibers: composed of microtubules, appears near each pair of centrioles, radiate outward.
    - asters: spidle fibers in radiating structure
    - spindle apparatus: asters extending toward the center of the nucleus, shortens to move chromosomes toward
    opposite poles of the cell during the later stages of mitosis
  5. e - or called autosomal cells
    - everything but the gamete
    - contain diploid number of chromosomes characteristic of its species (2N)
    - N is the number of chromosomes found in haploid cell (gamete)
    - in human, 2N = 46 and N = 23

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. homologous chromosomes come together and intertwine
  2. - once a month, an immature ovum is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity and drawn into the nearby fallopian tube
    - inner surface of the fallopian tube is lined with cilia that move the ovum into and along the tube and toward the uterus
    - mammalian female's reproductive and excretory systems are distinct from one another (urethra and vagina aren't connected)
  3. - prokaryotes' way of of cell division
    - a type of asexual reproduction
    - splits into two equal halves, each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the original chromosome
  4. - result when a single zygote splits into two embryos
    - if splitting occurs at the two-cell stage of development, embryos will have separate chorions and separate placentas
    - if it occurs at blastula stage, embryos only have one chorionic sac and share a placenta (and probably amnion)
  5. - intense biochemical activity and growth
    - cell doubles in size and new organelles are produced
    - passing "restriction point", where a cell is committed to continue through the rest of the cell cycle and divide
    - some cells like skeletal muscle cells and nerve cells never pass this point, and enter a nondividng phase sometimes referred to as G₀
    - 2N number of chromosomes

5 True/False questions

  1. Meiosis- similar to mitosis
    - not preceded by chromosomal replication

          

  2. Reproduction- the regrowth of a lost or injured body part
    - replacement of cells occurs by mitosis
    - ex: hydra and starfish
    - in higher animals, regeneration is usually limited to the healing of tissues
    - some internal organs (liver) can regenerate considerably as long as part of the organ remains viable

          

  3. The Cell Cycle- spindle apparatus disappears
    - new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
    - nucleoli reappears
    - chromosomes uncoil
    - cytokinesis occurs

          

  4. Gametes- female gonads
    - found in the abdominal cavity
    - produce eggs (ova)
    - secrete esterogen and progesterone
    - consist of thousands of follicles

          

  5. Seminal Fluid- mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageways
    - semen: sperm + seminal fluid
    - produced by:
    a) seminal vesicles: fructose-rich fluid, serves as energy source
    b) prostate gland: alkaline milky fluid to protect from acidic environment in female's reproductive tract
    c) bulbourethral glands: small amount of viscous fluid, function unknown

          

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