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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. feedback inhibition
  2. second law of thermodynamics
  3. active site
  4. entropy
  5. aquaporin
  1. a A method of metabolic control in which a product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
  2. b A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.
  3. c The principle whereby every energy conversion reduces the order of the universe, increasing its entropy. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat.
  4. d The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface.
  5. e A transport protein in the plasma membrane of some plant or animal cells that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A description of membrane structure, depicting a cellular membrane as a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer made of phospholipid molecules.
  2. An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
  3. (1) A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives.
  4. Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
  5. An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.

5 True/False Questions

  1. potential energyThe energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.


  2. endergonic reactionAn energy-releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. The reaction releases an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between the reactants and the products.


  3. phosphorylationThe transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.


  4. enzymeAn organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.


  5. osmoregulationMethod by which organisms regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water.


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