5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- concentration gradient
- chemical energy
- energy coupling
- noncompetitive inhibitor
- a Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
- b Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
- c An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
- d In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
- e A substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site. By binding elsewhere on the enzyme, a noncompetitive inhibitor changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions.
5 Multiple choice questions
- The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
- The capacity to perform work, or to rearrange matter.
- The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.
- A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
- A method of metabolic control in which a product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
5 True/False questions
pinocytosis → Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
induced fit → Cellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
cofactor → A nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. See also coenzyme.
kinetic energy → The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.
phosphorylation → The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.