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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. heat
  2. tonicity
  3. cellular respiration
  4. facilitated diffusion
  5. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  1. a Thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
  2. b The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water.
  3. c The passage of a substance through a specific transport protein across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient.
  4. d The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
  5. e Main energy source for cells.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (1) A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives.
  2. The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
  3. A substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site. By binding elsewhere on the enzyme, a noncompetitive inhibitor changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions.
  4. A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
  5. A method of metabolic control in which a product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.

5 True/False Questions

  1. endergonic reactionAn energy-releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. The reaction releases an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between the reactants and the products.


  2. concentration gradientAn increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.


  3. endocytosisCellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.


  4. fluid mosaicA description of membrane structure, depicting a cellular membrane as a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer made of phospholipid molecules.


  5. kinetic energyThe energy of motion; the energy of a mass of matter that is moving. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.


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