5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- a Thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
- b Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
- c A protein (or RNA molecule) that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.
- d A transport protein in the plasma membrane of some plant or animal cells that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
- e Cellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.
- A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
- The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
- Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
- The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often as ATP).
5 True/False Questions
passive transport → The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often as ATP).
osmoregulation → Method by which organisms regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water.
chemical energy → Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
phosphorylation → The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
thermodynamics → The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.