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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. phagocytosis
  2. concentration gradient
  3. chemical energy
  4. energy coupling
  5. noncompetitive inhibitor
  1. a Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
  2. b Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
  3. c An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
  4. d In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
  5. e A substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site. By binding elsewhere on the enzyme, a noncompetitive inhibitor changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
  2. The capacity to perform work, or to rearrange matter.
  3. The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.
  4. A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
  5. A method of metabolic control in which a product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.

5 True/False questions

  1. pinocytosisCellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.

          

  2. induced fitCellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.

          

  3. cofactorA nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. See also coenzyme.

          

  4. kinetic energyThe energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.

          

  5. phosphorylationThe transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.

          

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