Chapter 1 Test

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Sociology Chapter 1 Test

What might a sociologist say about the reasons people select a marriage partner?

Typically, a person marries someone of similar social background.

The statement that the social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activities and clothing describes:

the essential wisdom of the discipline of sociology

Which discipline defines itself as "the systematic study of human society"?

sociology

By saying that the sociological perspective shows us "the strange in the familiar," the text argues that sociologists:

reject the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initially strange idea that society shapes our lives

A sociological view of going to college highlights the effect of:

all of the above are correct

The pioneering sociologist who studied patters of suicide in Europe was:

Emile Durkheim

In the United States today, the suicide rate is highest for which category of people noted below?

white males

Suicide rates are generally higher among

single people compared to married people

According to Emile Durkheim, a category of people with a higher suicide rate typically has:

lower social integration

Which of the following is not a reason that is important to understand the world beyond our own borders?

The U.S. economy has less to do with what goes on in other countries.

The Global Map on economic development shows the economically poorest region of the world is:

Africa

Sociologists claim that one way to learn more about ourselves is to:

study people who differ from us

Sociologists use the term "social marginality" to refer to:

being defined as an "outsider."

C. Wright Mills pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread:

in times of crisis

C. Wright Mills claimed that the "sociological imagination" transformed:

personal problems into public issues

Sociology helps us to

all of the above correct

Which of the following historical changes is not among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline?

the founding of the Roman Catholic church

In which of the countries noted below did sociology as a form of discipline appear first?

France

Sociology differs from earlier philosophy by focusing on:

how society actually operates

The term "sociology" was coined in 1838 by:

Auguste Comte

The major goal of sociology's pioneers, such as Comte and Durkheim, was:

to discover how society actually operates

Comte described the earliest human societies as being at which stage of societal development?

theological stage

According to Comte, people begin to see society as a natural---rather than a supernatural-phenomenon as their society enters which stage of development?

post-scientific stage

Thomas Hobbe's idea that society reflects a selfish human nature illustrates the thinking common at which of Comte's stages of societal development?

metaphysical stage

According to Comte, during the Middle Ages most people in Europe thought of society as:

an expression of God's will

According to Comte's approach, the kind of thinking favored by people such as the inventor of the light bulb, Thomas Edison, becomes common in a society at which stage of societal development?

scientific stage

____ is a way of understanding the world based on science.

positivism

When did sociology become established as an academic discipline in the United States?

about 1900

The earliest sociologist who received the first doctorate ever awarded by Harvard University to a person of color was:

W.E.B. DuBois

The pioneering sociologist who founded Chicago's Hull House to assist immigrants and was awarded the Nobel Peace Price was:

Jane Addams

The U.S. sociologist who studied the African-American community and served as a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was:

W.E.B. DuBois

A statement of how and why specific facts are related is called a:

theory

To evaluate a theory, sociologists:

gather data or facts

If we state that children raised in single-parent families are at high risk of being single parents themselves, we have constructed a ___________ of family life.

theory

In deciding what kinds of questions to ask in their research, sociologists are guided by:

one or more theoretical paradigms

What is the term for a basic image of society that guides thinking and research?

theoretical pardigm

Which theoretical paradigm is closest to the work of early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim?

structural-functional paradigm

The theoretical paradigm in sociology that assumes society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the:

structural-functional paradigm

Which term is used to describe relatively stable patterns of social behavior?

social structure

Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. Which is the term for negative consequences?

social dysfunctions

The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as:

manifest functions

Unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social pattern are called:

latent functions

The chief characteristic of the __________ paradigm is its view of society as orderly and stable.

structural-functional

The "framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and charge" is the:

social-conflict paradigm

The social-conflict paradigm draws attention to:

patters of social inequality

The social-conflict paradigm might well lead a sociologists to highlight:

all of the above are correct

Which person had an important influence on the development of social-conflict paradigm?

Karl Marx

W.E.B. DuBois described African Americans as having a "double consciousness" because:

black people are citizens who cannot escape an additional identity based on skin color

Which early sociologist claimed that the important task was not to simply understand society but to change it?

Karl Marx

The ________ paradigms are macro-level approaches that pain societies in broad strokes.

structural-functional and structural-conflict

Which of the following illustrates a micro-level focus?

two people on an airplane getting to know one another

The basic idea of the symbolic-interaction is that society is:

the product of people interacting in everyday situations

Which theoretical paradigm highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behaviors?

symbolic-interaction paradigm

Which question summarizes the focus of the symbolic-interaction paradigm?

How do people experience society?

Which of the following is a manifest function of sports?

providing recreation and physical conditioning

A social-conflict analysis of sports might emphasize?

the different meanings people attach to games

In the United States, African Americans figure prominently in all but which of the following sports?

swimming

An exaggerated description that one applies to every person in some category is referred to as:

a stereotype

Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations:

all of the above are correct

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