Medical Terminology HIT1 Chp 3

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Medical Terminology HIT1 Chp 3 Skeletal System

ankyl/o

crooked, bent, stiff

arthro/o

joints, limbs

chondr/o

Cartilage (type of connective tissue)

cost/o

ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs)

crani/o

skull, cranium

-desis

binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)

kyph/o

bent, hump

lord/o

curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)

-lysis

breakdown, destruction, separation

myel/o

spinal cord, bone marrow

oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o

4 roots for bone

scoli/o

crooked, bent

spondyl/o

vertebrae

synovi/o, synov/o

synovial membrane/fluid

-um

noun ending

acetabulum

the cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket joint

allogenic

originating within another

ankylosing spondylitis

chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine

arthrodesis

surgical fusion of a joint

arthrolysis

surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint

arthroscopy

visual examination of a joint

autologous

originating within an individual

chondroma

a common benign tumor of cartilage cells

chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

comminuted fracture

fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed

compression fracture

bone collapses or is compressed, as may happen to vertebrae in osteoporosis or with traumatic injury

costochondritis

inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

craniostenosis

a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures.

crepitation

dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

dual x-ray absorptiometry

a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density

fibrous dysplasia

a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue

hallux valgus

an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)

hemarthrosis

blood within a joint

hemopoietic

pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells

internal fixation

a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue

kyphosis

an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column

laminectomy

surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae

lordosis

an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column

lumbago

backache affecting the lumbar region or lower back

malleolus

the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle

manubrium

upper portion of the sternum

metacarpals

bones of the hand

metatarsals

bones of the foot between ankle and toes

myeloma

a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow

open fracture

bone fracture that breaks through the skin

orthopedic surgeon

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

orthotic

a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function

osteitis

inflammation of a bone as a consequence of infection or trauma or degeneration

osteoarthritis

chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints

osteochondroma

benign tumor containing both bone and cartilage

osteoclasis

surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

osteomalacia

abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D

osteomyelitis

an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)

osteonecrosis

death of bone tissue

osteopenia

abnormal reduction of bone mass

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

osteoporotic hip fracture

usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall

osteorrhaphy

the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones

paget's disease

a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation

pathologic fracture

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

percutaneous vertebroplasty

A minimally invasive procedure performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures of the spine.

periostitis

inflammation of the periosteum

podiatrist

a specialist in care for the feet

prosthesis

Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity

rheumatoid arthritis

a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

rickets

childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)

spina bifida

congenital defect in the vertebral column caused by the failure of the vertebral arch to close

spiral fracture

ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone

spondylolisthesis

a forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it producing pressure on spinal nerves

spondylosis

a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function

subluxation

partial displacement of a joint or organ

synovectomy

the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint

vertebrae

26 small bones that make up your backbone

The Tissues of Bone: Periosteum

the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone (perimeans
surrounding, oste means bone, and -um is a
noun ending).

The Tissues of Bone: Compact bone

the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones.

The Tissues of Bone: Spongy bone

lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. This type of bone is commonly found in the ends
and inner portions of long bones such as the femur. Red bone marrow is located within this spongy bone.

The Tissues of Bone: medullary cavity

is located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone. Medullary means pertaining to the inner section.

The Tissues of Bone: endosteum

the tissue that lines the medullary cavity (end- means within, oste means bone, and -um is a noun ending).

Bone Marrow: Red bone marrow

is located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes. These types of cells are discussed in Chapter 5. Hemopoietic (hee-moh poy-ET-ick) means pertaining to the formation of blood cells (hem/o means blood, and -poietic means pertaining to formation). This term is also spelled hematopoietic.

Bone Marrow: Yellow bone marrow

functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity.

Cartilage: Cartilage

is the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. Cartilage, which is more elastic than bone, also makes up the flexible parts
of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the nose.

Cartilage: Articular cartilage

covers the surfaces of bones where they come
together to form joints. This cartilage makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other

Cartilage: meniscus

is the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw

Landmarks of Bones: diaphysis

is the shaft of a long bone

Landmarks of Bones: epiphysis

which is covered with articular cartilage, is the wide end of a long bone. The proximal epiphysis is the end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body. The distal epiphysis is the end of the bone located farthest away from the midline.

Landmarks of Bones: foramen

is an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass (plural, foramina). For example, the spinal cord
passes through the foramen magnum of the occipital bone.

Landmarks of Bones: process

is a normal projection on the surface of a
bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons. For example, the mastoid process is the bony projection located on temporal bones just behind the ears

Joints

which are also known as articulations, are the
place of union between two or more bones. Joints are classified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow.

Cartilaginous Joints

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage. Examples include: where the ribs connect to the sternum (breast bone)

Cartilaginous Joints: pubic symphysis

is the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. This joint is located between the pubic bones in the anterior (front) of the pelvis

Synovial Joints

is createdwhere two bones articulate to permit a varietyofmotions.Asusedhere the term articulate means to come together. These joints are also
described based on their type of motion

Synovial Joints: Ball and socket joints

such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions

Synovial Joints: Hinge joints,

such as the knees and elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one
direction or plane

Component of Synovial Joints: synovial capsule

is the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the
joint.

Component of Synovial Joints: Synovial fluid

which flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the
joint possible.

Component of Synovial Joints: Synovial membrane

lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid.

Component of Synovial Joints: Ligaments

are bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage. Complex hinge joints, such as the knee, are made up of a series of
ligaments that permit movement in different directions

Component of Synovial Joints: bursa

is a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion
to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints where a
tendon passes over a bone (plural, bursae).

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