the cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket joint
chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine
bone collapses or is compressed, as may happen to vertebrae in osteoporosis or with traumatic injury
dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
dual x-ray absorptiometry
a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
osteoporotic hip fracture
usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall
a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
A minimally invasive procedure performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures of the spine.
Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
congenital defect in the vertebral column caused by the failure of the vertebral arch to close
a forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it producing pressure on spinal nerves
The Tissues of Bone: Periosteum
the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone (perimeans
surrounding, oste means bone, and -um is a
The Tissues of Bone: Compact bone
the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones.
The Tissues of Bone: Spongy bone
lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. This type of bone is commonly found in the ends
and inner portions of long bones such as the femur. Red bone marrow is located within this spongy bone.
The Tissues of Bone: medullary cavity
is located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone. Medullary means pertaining to the inner section.
The Tissues of Bone: endosteum
the tissue that lines the medullary cavity (end- means within, oste means bone, and -um is a noun ending).
Bone Marrow: Red bone marrow
is located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes. These types of cells are discussed in Chapter 5. Hemopoietic (hee-moh poy-ET-ick) means pertaining to the formation of blood cells (hem/o means blood, and -poietic means pertaining to formation). This term is also spelled hematopoietic.
Bone Marrow: Yellow bone marrow
functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity.
is the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. Cartilage, which is more elastic than bone, also makes up the flexible parts
of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the nose.
Cartilage: Articular cartilage
covers the surfaces of bones where they come
together to form joints. This cartilage makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other
is the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw
Landmarks of Bones: epiphysis
which is covered with articular cartilage, is the wide end of a long bone. The proximal epiphysis is the end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body. The distal epiphysis is the end of the bone located farthest away from the midline.
Landmarks of Bones: foramen
is an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass (plural, foramina). For example, the spinal cord
passes through the foramen magnum of the occipital bone.
Landmarks of Bones: process
is a normal projection on the surface of a
bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons. For example, the mastoid process is the bony projection located on temporal bones just behind the ears
which are also known as articulations, are the
place of union between two or more bones. Joints are classified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow.
allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage. Examples include: where the ribs connect to the sternum (breast bone)
Cartilaginous Joints: pubic symphysis
is the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. This joint is located between the pubic bones in the anterior (front) of the pelvis
is createdwhere two bones articulate to permit a varietyofmotions.Asusedhere the term articulate means to come together. These joints are also
described based on their type of motion
Synovial Joints: Ball and socket joints
such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions
Synovial Joints: Hinge joints,
such as the knees and elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one
direction or plane
Component of Synovial Joints: synovial capsule
is the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the
Component of Synovial Joints: Synovial fluid
which flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the
Component of Synovial Joints: Ligaments
are bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage. Complex hinge joints, such as the knee, are made up of a series of
ligaments that permit movement in different directions