world history chapter 7

25 terms by lovethenerds

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prentice hall textbook!

anesthetic

drug that prevents pain during surgery

enclosure

the process of taking over and forcing off land from former peasant farmers.

smelt

separating iron from its ore

capital

wealth to invest in enterprises ie. shipping, mines, railroads, and factories.

factory

place that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods

turnpike

Privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it

urbanization

movement of people from rural areas to cities

tenements

multistory building divided into crowded apartments

labor unions

an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions

utilitarianism

the idea that society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens"

socialism

people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the ---->

means of production

the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods

communism

a form of socialism that sees class struggles employers and employees as unavoidable

proletariat

the working class

Jethro Tull

invented the seed drill

Thomas Newcomen

invented the steam engine

Richard ArkWright

invented the waterframe

George Stephenson

developed the first steam powered locomotive

John Wesley

creator of Methodism

Adam Smith

main prophet of laissez-faire. author of the Wealth of Nations. asserted the free market

Malthus and Ricardo

said that population would outgrow the food production, urged people to have less kids.

Jeremy Bentham

"father of utilitarianism"

Robert Owen

a Utopian, believed that the conditions people lived in shaped their characters. built a model factory in Scotland. no child labor

Karl Marx

German philosopher, anti-Utopian,

Utopians

self sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common.

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