1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Sherman Silver Purchas Act
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the ecomony lead to a run on the ferderal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
1893 - Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
1867 - Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation of a number of political parties, which eventually joined with the growing labor movement to form the Progressive Party.
Populist Party platfor, Omaha platform
Offically named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers. The part was split between South and West.
Wisconsin, "Laboratory of Democracy"
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
Election of 1896: candidates and issues
William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.
William Jennings Bryan
Three-time candidate for president for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State (1913-1915).
"Cross of Gold " Speech
Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
Gold Standard Act
1900 - This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
Realigning Elections or Political Realignment
sharp, long-lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties. There have been 5 critical or realigning elections in US history. 1800, 1824, 1860, 1896, 1932
A political and social term that refers to ideologies and movements favoring or advocating changes or reform. Progressivism is often viewed in opposition to conservative ideologies. emerged in the late 19th century into the 20th century in reference to a more general response to the vast changes brought by industrialization
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Jacob Riis How the other half lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
ida Tarbell History of The Standard Oil company
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel
David Graham philips: The Treason of the senate
A muckraker novel, it publicized corruption in the Senate after doing research on government leaders.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Jane Addams Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English
Womens Christian temprence union and Carrie Nation
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol. Carry A. Nation (1846-1901) was a prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
16th 17th 18th and 19th amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist company Fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
trustbuster and good vs. bad trust
Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws. He boiled everything down to a case of right versus wrong and good versus bad. If a trust controlled an entire industry but provided good service at reasonable rates, it was a "good" trust to be left alone. Only the "bad" trusts that jacked up rates and exploited consumers would come under attack. Who would decide the difference between right and wrong? The occupant of the White House trusted only himself to make this decision in the interests of the people.
Newlands Reclamation act 1902
Authorized the use of federal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.
Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time. Roosevelt fearful of the nation freezing during the winter if a cool strike continued set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.
Elkins Act 1903 rebates
This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
Hepburn Act 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates
Mann-Elkins Act 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Northern Securities Company case
The Supreme Court ordered this company, which was controlled by by John D. Rockefeller's Trust to dissolve because it was violated the Sherman Anti-trust Ac
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Upton Sinclair The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions. After reading the book, President Roosevelt pushed a series of regulatory acts to clean up the meatpacking industry.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Taft- Roosevelt split
They split over idealogy. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912
Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
Theodore Roosevelt New Nationalsim
A system win which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
Federal reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Underwood Simmons Tariff
October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
Federal Trade Commision Cease and Desist Orders
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Clayton's Antitrust Act, Labors Magna Carta
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved
Indian Apropriations Act
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a friendly Cheyenne village in Colorado
Battle of The little Big horn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Battle of Wounded Knee
1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota
Hellen Hunt Jackson A century of Dishonor
A muckracker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
Dawes Severelty Act 1887
Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian proverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
The practice of an angry mob hanging a percieved criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites might be lynched by white mobs.
Booker T Washington(1857-1915) Tuskegee Institute
(1856-1915) An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
The Atlanta Compromise
Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society
George Washington Carver 1860-1943
A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses for peanuts. He believed that education was the key to improving the social status of blacks.
A black orator and eassayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks
Plessy v. Furguson Seperate but Equal
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
A group of black and white reformers, including W. E. B. DuBois. They organized the NAACP in 1909.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals.