Spanish. 1492 sails ships Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria. Landed in San Salvador but he thought he was in Asia. Triggered a wave of exploration.
Colonists Interaction with Native Americans
Native Americans and Europeans taught eachother how to grow things. Many indians died from diseases that colonists had. Measles, flu..etc.
English settlement in Virginia. Lead by captain John Smith. Funded by a joint stock company. Were helped by the "Powhatan Confederacy". Grew tobacco. 1619 formed the House of Burgesses to make their own laws.
meant to encourage settlers. Each person got some land.
New England Colonies
Mostly Puritans. Valued religious devotion, hard work, and obedience to strict rules. Revolved around town life. Survived on substinence farming = raising only enough food to feed your family. Main crop = wheat. Prosperous lumber, shipbuilding, and maritime activity.
The Middle Colonies
Dutch claimed this land south of Connecticut. "New Netherland". New York = Holy Experiment. Many of the newcomers settled in the Middle Colonies. Economy was mostly wheat.
The Southern Colonies
Was a proprietary colony = one owned by an individual who could govern it in any way...ex., Maryland. Was a refuge for Catholics who were persecuted in England. Religious toleration. Agriculture was the focus.
Involved the exchange of goods among colonies, England, Carribbean sugar planters, and Africa. Brought a great wealth for merchants.
Forms of Servitude
Indentured servants, Native Americans, Slaves, English Convicts, Redemption System, and children.
Conditions of Slavery
10 to 12 mil were enslaved in America 1450-1870. Slave codes kept african captives from owning property, getting education, moving about freely..etc. Lived on plantations. Were threatened to be sold away from their families.
Slave Resistance and Rebellion
Slaves tried to run away. "Passive resistance". Stono Rebellion (1739) in South Carolina.
Populations grew rapidly, high birthrates, improved housing & sanitation, but contagious diseases still remained a threat.
William and Mary accept English Bill of Rights, meaning they can't do anything without parliament. W&M Permit RI and CONN to resume previous forms of gvt, and issue new charter for MA granting right to assemble and freedom of worship. Glorious Revolution suggested that revolution was justified when individual rights were violated.
theory that both the physical world and human nature operate in a natural way according to natural laws. Uses reason and logic.
Most influential Enlightenment writers. "Two Treatsies of Government", words used by Jefferson in DOI - "natural rights". "Essay on Human Understanding". Refuted Divine Right
"The Social Contract"., Government should be formed on consent of the people who would then make their own laws
"The Spirit of Laws". 3 types of political power: Executive, Legislative, Judicial. Each branch would provide checks and balances to prevent government from abusing its authority.
Lead to widespread resugence of religious fervor. Religious freedom and revival.
Effects of French-Indian War
1) Increased their colonial empire in the Americas
2) Greatly enlarged England's debt
3) Britian's contempt for the colonies created bitter feelings
Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of the American empire was necessary
Proclamation Acts of 1763
tried to halt colonial expansion into Indian lands west of the Applachian Mountains
Stamp Act of 1765
Required stamps to be bought and placed on most printed materials from newspapers to cards. Colonists ignored it and boycotted all goods from Britian.
The Townshend Acts
Passed by Parliament in 1767 to raise $$ from colonies. Put duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea.
What the coercive acts and Quebec Acts became jointly to be known.
Patriots. Believed British had become tyrants
Loyalists. Those who supported the king.
Advantage of Colonies during American Revolution??
Knew the lay of the land.
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776. Formally dissolved ties with Britain. Drafted by Thomas Britain. Includes a preamble (explains why the continental congress drew up the Declaration), natural rights, and their list of greivances.
Articles of Confederation
loosely unified US under congress. congress only had limited powers. Under them, each state only had 1 vote in Congress.
Problems w/ Articles of Confederation
Congress lacked power to handle other challenges. Couldn't stop states from issuing their own currency -> weakened economy. The hardest hit were poor farmers. People were wanting a strnoger central government
Famers in MA attacked state government. They were debt ridden.
Virginia and New Jersey plans
called the connecticut or great compromise. NJ had equal rep, VA had population rep., so they decided on a bicameral leg of the House of Reps and the Senate
A slave would count as 3/5 of a person in taxation..etc.
Favored strong national government led by the rich, well born and able. Were mostly manufacturers, merchants, and bankers.
Wanted to put limits on the federal governments power, protection of state's rights.
Bill of Rights
protects the rights of individuals against the government. People have other rights not listed in the constitution, and adds any powers not specifically given to the federal government are resrved for the states.
Hamilton's Plan to pay off all debts
Create a national bank to manage the country's finances, Assumption, whiskey tax, encourage manufacturing, move national capitol to DC
Election of 1800
Republican nominee= Thomas Jefferson. John Adams. Election was close and was a tie. House votes in tiebraker, leads to 12th ammendment in 1804 providing for sep ballots for the president and VP
Marbury v Madison
Under Adams, he added new pro-fed judges. Jefferson didn't want new judges. Marbury = guy who never got comission for judge. Madison = Secretary of State who didn't want all these judges.
Under Prez Jefferson. Bought what Napoleon owned. Cost 11.25 mil + French debts of 3.75 mil
War of 1812
British were seizing US ships. Jefferson responds with unsuccessful trade sanctions. Madison (R) continues Jefferson's efforts and congress declares war. End of the federalist party.
Era of Good Feelings
More and more americans took pride in their contry. Lead to a lot of Nationalism.
McColloch v. Maryland
2nd bank of US located in Maryland, Maryland decides to tax the bank. Supreme court rules 2nd BUS constutional, but states can't tax the fed gvt.
British people can't own land
Steam boats, trains..etc.
US industrialized quickly bc of system of free enterprise based on private property rights. Began in northeast.
Spread of cotton plantations in the South boosted the economy, but created more of a demand for slave labor.