US History Test Unit 1

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US History Test on Unit 1 Moloney

Christopher Columbus

Spanish. 1492 sails ships Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria. Landed in San Salvador but he thought he was in Asia. Triggered a wave of exploration.

Colonists Interaction with Native Americans

Native Americans and Europeans taught eachother how to grow things. Many indians died from diseases that colonists had. Measles, flu..etc.

Jamestown

English settlement in Virginia. Lead by captain John Smith. Funded by a joint stock company. Were helped by the "Powhatan Confederacy". Grew tobacco. 1619 formed the House of Burgesses to make their own laws.

Headright System

meant to encourage settlers. Each person got some land.

New England Colonies

Mostly Puritans. Valued religious devotion, hard work, and obedience to strict rules. Revolved around town life. Survived on substinence farming = raising only enough food to feed your family. Main crop = wheat. Prosperous lumber, shipbuilding, and maritime activity.

The Middle Colonies

Dutch claimed this land south of Connecticut. "New Netherland". New York = Holy Experiment. Many of the newcomers settled in the Middle Colonies. Economy was mostly wheat.

The Southern Colonies

Was a proprietary colony = one owned by an individual who could govern it in any way...ex., Maryland. Was a refuge for Catholics who were persecuted in England. Religious toleration. Agriculture was the focus.

Triangular Trade

Involved the exchange of goods among colonies, England, Carribbean sugar planters, and Africa. Brought a great wealth for merchants.

Forms of Servitude

Indentured servants, Native Americans, Slaves, English Convicts, Redemption System, and children.

Conditions of Slavery

10 to 12 mil were enslaved in America 1450-1870. Slave codes kept african captives from owning property, getting education, moving about freely..etc. Lived on plantations. Were threatened to be sold away from their families.

Slave Resistance and Rebellion

Slaves tried to run away. "Passive resistance". Stono Rebellion (1739) in South Carolina.

Colonial Life

Populations grew rapidly, high birthrates, improved housing & sanitation, but contagious diseases still remained a threat.

Glorious Revolution

William and Mary accept English Bill of Rights, meaning they can't do anything without parliament. W&M Permit RI and CONN to resume previous forms of gvt, and issue new charter for MA granting right to assemble and freedom of worship. Glorious Revolution suggested that revolution was justified when individual rights were violated.

The Enlightenment

theory that both the physical world and human nature operate in a natural way according to natural laws. Uses reason and logic.

John Locke

Most influential Enlightenment writers. "Two Treatsies of Government", words used by Jefferson in DOI - "natural rights". "Essay on Human Understanding". Refuted Divine Right

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

"The Social Contract"., Government should be formed on consent of the people who would then make their own laws

Baron Montesquieu

"The Spirit of Laws". 3 types of political power: Executive, Legislative, Judicial. Each branch would provide checks and balances to prevent government from abusing its authority.

Great Awakening

Lead to widespread resugence of religious fervor. Religious freedom and revival.

Effects of French-Indian War

1) Increased their colonial empire in the Americas
2) Greatly enlarged England's debt
3) Britian's contempt for the colonies created bitter feelings

Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of the American empire was necessary

Proclamation Acts of 1763

tried to halt colonial expansion into Indian lands west of the Applachian Mountains

Stamp Act of 1765

Required stamps to be bought and placed on most printed materials from newspapers to cards. Colonists ignored it and boycotted all goods from Britian.

The Townshend Acts

Passed by Parliament in 1767 to raise $$ from colonies. Put duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea.

Intolerable Acts

What the coercive acts and Quebec Acts became jointly to be known.

Whigs

Patriots. Believed British had become tyrants

Torries

Loyalists. Those who supported the king.

Advantage of Colonies during American Revolution??

Knew the lay of the land.

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776. Formally dissolved ties with Britain. Drafted by Thomas Britain. Includes a preamble (explains why the continental congress drew up the Declaration), natural rights, and their list of greivances.

Articles of Confederation

loosely unified US under congress. congress only had limited powers. Under them, each state only had 1 vote in Congress.

Problems w/ Articles of Confederation

Congress lacked power to handle other challenges. Couldn't stop states from issuing their own currency -> weakened economy. The hardest hit were poor farmers. People were wanting a strnoger central government

Shay's Rebellion

Famers in MA attacked state government. They were debt ridden.

Virginia and New Jersey plans

called the connecticut or great compromise. NJ had equal rep, VA had population rep., so they decided on a bicameral leg of the House of Reps and the Senate

3/5 Compromise

A slave would count as 3/5 of a person in taxation..etc.

Federalists

Favored strong national government led by the rich, well born and able. Were mostly manufacturers, merchants, and bankers.

Anti-Federalists

Wanted to put limits on the federal governments power, protection of state's rights.

Bill of Rights

protects the rights of individuals against the government. People have other rights not listed in the constitution, and adds any powers not specifically given to the federal government are resrved for the states.

Hamilton's Plan to pay off all debts

Create a national bank to manage the country's finances, Assumption, whiskey tax, encourage manufacturing, move national capitol to DC

Election of 1800

Republican nominee= Thomas Jefferson. John Adams. Election was close and was a tie. House votes in tiebraker, leads to 12th ammendment in 1804 providing for sep ballots for the president and VP

Marbury v Madison

Under Adams, he added new pro-fed judges. Jefferson didn't want new judges. Marbury = guy who never got comission for judge. Madison = Secretary of State who didn't want all these judges.

Louisiana Purchase

Under Prez Jefferson. Bought what Napoleon owned. Cost 11.25 mil + French debts of 3.75 mil

War of 1812

British were seizing US ships. Jefferson responds with unsuccessful trade sanctions. Madison (R) continues Jefferson's efforts and congress declares war. End of the federalist party.

Era of Good Feelings

More and more americans took pride in their contry. Lead to a lot of Nationalism.

McColloch v. Maryland

2nd bank of US located in Maryland, Maryland decides to tax the bank. Supreme court rules 2nd BUS constutional, but states can't tax the fed gvt.

Monroe Doctrine

British people can't own land

Transportation Revolution

Steam boats, trains..etc.

Industrialization

US industrialized quickly bc of system of free enterprise based on private property rights. Began in northeast.

Cotton

Spread of cotton plantations in the South boosted the economy, but created more of a demand for slave labor.

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