Beginning in the 700s BCE,first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization
Ruled much of Ital including Rome
Romans learned form them: alphabet, use of the arch and engineering techniques to drain marsh areas
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them, A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting.
Powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
A ruler who has complete power over a country.
Was given power to rule for 6 months-only done in the event the war.
the poorer majority of the roman empire; the working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office; couldnt be in army, lower class, usually small farmers
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates., representatives of lower class (plebians)
a vote that blocks a decision.
laws of the twelve tablets
First time laws were written down so public could see
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
First Punic War
264 B.C. - 241 B.C., Rome and Carthage fought over island of Sicily, was a naval war, Rome was losing because they did not have a good navy, Romans figured out how to board the Carthage ships and fight them there, Romans gained control of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia (Islands)
Second Punic War
(218-202 BCE) began when Carthage built up its troops and invaded Italy/ during the war Hannibal won battle after battle against Rome but eventually Hannibal was defeated because he was forced to return to Carthage to defend the city against a Roman counterinvasion/ the battle of Zama in 202 BCE was a clear Roman victory, and Carthage was forced to give up most of its extensive holdings in Africa and Spain
Third Punic War
149- 146 B.C. Cause- roman veterans sought revenge from destruction of second war (farms, animals, and walls were destoyed). Result- Rome wins, carthage totally destroyed, sold population to slavery, salted fields, burned city
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
a Roman poet
ridicule with satire
art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
the practical application of science to commerce or industry
a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
Roman lower class
the solar calendar introduced in Rome in 46 b.c. by Julius Caesar and slightly modified by Augustus, establishing the 12-month year of 365 days with each 4th year having 366 days and the months having 31 or 30 days except for February
We still use this calendar today
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew., Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (151)
a period count of the population
What did Augustus do for Rome?
jobs to qualified men regardless of social status
build roads and temples
Only ruled for four years, mentally unstable. He had an affair with his sister and named them both as Gods. He also named his horse a consul.
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68), First Roman emperor to persecute Christians
The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.
Codified Rome-all had same laws
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
Roman Peace, A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
The longest race track in Rome, 2000 feet long, holds half a million (500,000) spectators, a Roman outdoor arena in which public games, such as chariot races, were held
This entertainment was meant to pacify the people and help to keep peace
savior sent by God
a clergyman having spiritual and administrative authority. bacically the pope. except more poor.
(New Testament) one of the original 12 disciples chosen by Christ to preach his gospel
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)
A.D. 11-67 Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world
the head of the Roman Catholic Church. has way to much money and probably has never read the bible before.
person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs
the crime of free will.
a walled city in northeastern Algeria east of Algiers